This article is based on
Chapter 7 of "The Log Analysis Handbook" by E. R. Crain, P.Eng., published by Pennwell Books 1986 Updated 2004,
webpage version is the copyrighted intellectual
property of the author.
Do not copy or distribute in any form without explicit
Sonic Neutron Crossplot
The sonic neutron crossplot model is used to estimate porosity
when the density neutron crossplot method cannot be used. The method
works well when shale volume, matrix rock properties, and
sonic compaction effects are
If both density and neutron logs are available, a superior
model that does not require matrix rock properties is the
Shale Corrected Density Neutron
Complex Lithology Crossplot Method. The Meta/Kwik
spreadsheet for this model is available at
Downloads and Spreadsheets.
The sonic neutron crossplot method involves the simultaneous solution
of the sonic and neutron response equations for porosity. They
are similar in form to the density neutron pair, and will not
be repeated here.
Since both logs
respond similarly to shale, the formulae do not have much accuracy
in very shaly sands.
Gas effect is similar to the density neutron crossplot, so gas
may be corrected for.
Sonic Neutron CrossplOT
compaction correction for sonic.
1: KCP = max (1, CDTSH / (100 - 228 * (IF DEPTHUNIT$ = "METRIC)))
Calculate sonic porosity.
2: PHIS = (DELT - DELTMA) / (DELTW - DELTMA) / KCP
Calculate shale corrected porosity:
3: PHISSH = (DELTSH - DELTMA) / (DELTW - DELTMA) / KCP
4: PHIsc = PHIS - Vsh * PHISSH
5: PHInc = PHIN - Vsh * PHINSH
Calculate matrix offset (C) for neutron log, if needed, using
offset formulae HERE. Since density data is
not needed in this method, any arbitrary density porosity value
can be used to calculate the matrix offset. This density porosity
value should be the appropriate average porosity in the zone of
Calculate neutron log value with matrix offset.
6: PHINm = PHInc - C
Check for gas crossover using PHINm and PHIsc.
If no gas crossover, that is
7: IF PHINm >= PHIsc
8: THEN E = 0.5 - 10 ^ (-5 PHInc - 0.3)
9: AND G = -0.146
10: AND PHIxsn = (G * PHInc - E * PHIsc) / (G - E)
If gas crossover occurs, that is:
11: IF PHINm < PHIsc
12: THEN PHIxsn = ((PHIsc ^ 2 + PHInc ^ 2) / 2) ^ 0.5
C = neutron log matrix offset (fractional)
CDTSH = sonic log shale value for compaction correction (usec/ft
KCP = compaction factor (fractional)
DELT = sonic log reading (usec/ft or usec/m)
DELTMA = travel time in rock matrix (usec/ft or usec/m)
DELTSH = sonic log reading in shale (usec/ft or usec/m)
DELTW = travel time in water (usec/ft or usec/m)
E = neutron pseudo matrix point
G = sonic pseudo matrix point
PHIN = neutron log reading (fractional)
PHINm = neutron log value offset for matrix effect (fractional)
PHINSH = neutron log reading in shale (fractional)
PHInc = porosity from neutron log corrected for shale (fractional)
PHIS = porosity from sonic log (fractional)
PHIsc = porosity from sonic corrected for shale (fractional)
PHISSH = sonic porosity in shale (fractional)
PHIxsn = porosity from sonic neutron crossplot (fractional)
Vsh = shale volume (fractional)
The overall layout of the neutron sonic crossplot is shown
Chart for Sonic Neutron Porosity Model - shale corrected data
must be entered
The gas correction represents a 45 degree line (in porosity units)
on the crossplot. The method is best used in carbonates with or
without gas, and is inappropriate for shaly sand.
Shear sonic data may be used in place of compressional sonic data.
This is especially useful in cased holes where a shear sonic and
neutron log can be run through casing.
1. Assume data for Sand "D".
DELT = 300 usec/m
PHIN = 0.28
KCP = 1.00
DELTSH = 328 usec/m
PHINSH = 0.30
Vsh = 0.33
DELTMA = 182 usec/m
DELTW = 616 usec/m
no matrix offset
PHIS = (300 - 182) / (616 - 182) / 1.0 = 0.27
PHISSH = (328 - 182) / (616 - 182) / 1.0 = 0.33
PHIsc = 0.27 - 0.33 * 0.33 = 0.16
PHInc = 0.28 - 0.33 * 0.30 = 0.18
E = -0.5 - 10 ^ (0-5 * 0.18 - 0.3) = 0.43
G = -0.146
PHIxsn = (-0.146 * 0.18 - 0.43 * 0.16) / (-0.146 - 0.54) = 0.165
MATRIX ROCK PROPERTIES