Petrophysical Training
Petrophysical Consulting

TIMELINE TO 1699
Source:
Various
585: Thales of Miletus, prediction
of an eclipse
580: Thales of Miletus, birth of scientific thought
580: Thales of Miletus, water as the basic element
580: Thales of Miletus, magnets and attraction to rubbed amber
560: Thales of Miletus, first cosmologies
550: Anaximenes, flat Earth
525: Pythagoras, understanding the world and mathematics ==>
520: Anaximander, Earth surface is curved (cylinder)
515: Parmenides, paradoxes of change and motion
500: Pythagoreans, Earth is a sphere
480: Oenopides, finds angle of Earth's tilt to ecliptic
480: Protagoras, reality comes from the senses
480: Heraclitus, fire as primary substance
480: Heraclitus, change is the essence of being
475: Parmenides, Earth is a sphere
470: Anaxagoras, materials are made of "seeds" (atoms)
470: Anaxagoras, sun, moon and stars are made of same material as
Earth
470: Anaxagoras, sun as a hot glowing rock
460: Eudoxus, Celestial spheres
460: Empedocles, Four elements: Earth, Air, Fire and Water
455: Philolaus, Earth Rotates
450: Zeno, paradoxes of discrete or continuous space and time
445: Leucippus, indivisble atoms
425: Democritus, Atomic theory
390: Plato, theory of knowledge
390: Plato, ether as a fifth element
385: Democritus, Milky Way is composed of many stars
370: Aristotle, Free falling bodies accelerate but heavier bodies
fall faster
360: Heracleides, Venus and Mercury orbit the sun
352: Chinese, recorded observation of a supernova
350: Heracleides, Rotation of the Earth
340: Aristotle, Earth is a sphere
340: Aristotle, Space is continuous and always filled with matter
335: Kiddinu, precession of equinoxes
335: Strato, experiments with falling bodies and levers
330: Aristotle, physics and metaphysics
330: Aristotle, geocentric cosmology
325: Pytheas, tides are caused by moon
306: Epicurus, support for atomic theory
295: Euclid, elements of mathematics
265: Zou Yan, five elements: water, metal, wood, fire and earth
260: Aristarchus of Samos, ratio of EarthSun distance to
EarthMoon distance from angle at half moon
260: Aristarchus of Samos, distance and size of moon from Earth's
shadow during lunar eclipse
260: Aristarchus of Samos, heliocentric cosmology
250: Chinese, free bodies move at constant velocity
240: Archimedes, Principle of levers and compound pulley
240: Archimedes, Archimedes' principle of hydrostatics
235: Eratosthenes, Measurement of Earth's circumference
190: Seleucus, further support for heliocentric theory
170: Chinese, record of sun spots
150: Hipparchus, precession of the equinoxes
130: Hipparchus, size of moon from parallax of eclipse
83: Chinese, lodestone compass
100: Bhaskara, diameter of the Sun
100: Hero of Alexandria, expansion of air with heat
100: Hero of Alexandria, laws of light reflection
130: Ptolemy, geocentric cosmology of epicycles
180: Egypt, alchemy
550: Johannas Philoponus, impetus keeps a body moving
721: Abu Hayyan, preparation of chemicals such as nitric acid
890: AlRazi, atomic of matter and space
890: AlRazi, Andromeda galaxy
1000: Ali Alhazen, reflection, refraction and lenses
1000: Ali Alhazen, pinhole camera to demonstrate that light travels
in straight lines to the eye
1054: China and Arabia Supernova of Crab Nebula recorded
1121: Alkhazini gravity acts towards centre of Earth
1155: Bhaskara first description of a perpetual motion machine
1225: Jordanus Nemorarius, mechanics of lever and composition of
motion
1250: Albertus Magnus, isolation of arsenic
1260: Roger Bacon, empiricism
1267: Roger Bacon, magnifying lens
1269: Pierre de Maricourt, experiments with magnets and compass
1304: Theodoric of Freibourg, experiments to investigate rainbows
1320: William of Occam, Occam's Razor
1355: Jean Buridan, physics of impetus
1440: Nicolas Cusanus, Earth is in motion
1440: Nicolas Cusanus, infinite universe
1450: Johann Gutenberg, first printing press in Europe
1472: Johannes Regiomontanus, observation of Halley's comet
1480: Leonardo de Vinci, description of parachute
1480: Leonardo de Vinci, compares reflection of light to reflection
of sound waves
1490: Leonardo de Vinci, capillary action
1492: Leonardo de Vinci, foresees flying machines
1494: Leonardo de Vinci, foresees pendulum clock
1514: Nicolaus Copernicus, writes about heliocentric theory but does
not yet publish
1515: Leonardo Da Vinci, progress in mechanics, aerodynamics and
hydraulics
1537: Niccolo Tartaglia, trajectory of a bullet
1551: Girolamo Cardano, studies of falling bodies
1553: Giambattista Benedetti, proposed equality of fall rates
1543: Nicolaus Copernicus, heliocentric theory published
1546: Gerardus Mercator, Magnetic pole of Earth
1572: Tycho Brahe, witnesses a supernova and cites it as evidence
that the heavens are not changeless
1574: Tycho Brahe, Observes that a comet is beyond the moon
1576: Tycho Brahe, constructs a planetary observatory
1576: Thomas Digges, illustration of an infinite universe
surrounding a Copernican solar system
1577: Tycho Brahe, observes that a comet passes through the orbits
of other planets
1581: Galileo Galilei, constancy of period of pendulum
1581: Robert Norman, dip of compass shows that Earth is a magnet
1584: Giordano Bruno, suggests that stars are suns with other
Earth's in orbit
1585: Giovanni Benedetti, impetus theory is better than Aristotle's
physics
1585: Simon Stevin, law of equilibrium
1586: Simon Stevin, pressure in column of liquid
1586: Simon Stevin, verification of equality of fall rates
1589: Galileo Galilei, showed that objects fall at the same rate
independent of mass
1592: Galileo Galilei, suggests that physical laws of the heavens
are the same as those on Earth
1592: Galileo Galilei, primitive thermometer
1593: Johannes Kepler, related planets to platonic solids
1596: David Fabricius, observes a variable star, (Mira Ceta)
1600: Galileo Galilei, study of sound and vibrating strings
1600: William Gilbert, static electricity and magnetism
1604: Johannes Kepler, mirrors, lenses and vision
1604: Galileo Galilei, distance for falling object increases as
square of time
1608: Hans Lippershey, optical telescope
1609: Lippershey and Janssen, the compound microscope
1609: Johannes Kepler, 1st and 2nd laws of planetary motion
1609: Thomas Harriot, maps moon using a telescope
1609: Johannes Kepler, notion of energy
1609: Galileo Galilei, builds a telescope ==>
1610: Galileo Galilei, observes the phases of Venus
1610: Galileo Galilei, observes moons of Jupiter
1610: Galileo Galilei, observes craters on the moon
1610: Galileo Galilei, observes stars in the Milky Way
1610: Galileo Galilei, observes structures around Saturn
1611: Fabricius, Galileo, Harriot, Scheiner, sunspots
1611: Marco de Dominis, explanation of rainbows
1611: Johannes Kepler, principles of the astronomical telescope
1612: Simon Marius, Andromeda galaxy
1612: Galileo Galilei, hydrostatics
1613: Galileo Galilei, principle of inertia
1615: S. de Caus, forces and work
1618: Francesco Grimaldi, interference and diffraction of light
1619: Johannes Kepler, 3rd law of planetary motion
1619: Johannes Kepler, explains why a comets tail points away from
the Sun
1619: Rene Descartes, vision of rationalism
1620: Francis Bacon, the empirical scientific method
1620: Francis Bacon, heat is motion
1620: Jan Baptista van Helmont, introduces the word "gas"
1621: Willebrod Snell, the sine law of refraction
1624: Galileo Galilei, theory of tides
1626: Godfried Wendilin, verification of Kepler's laws for moons of
Jupiter
1630: Cabaeus, attraction and repulsion of electric charges
1631: Pierre Gassendi, observes a transit of Mercury
1632: Galileo Galilei, Galilean relativity
1632: Galileo Galilei, support for Copernicus' heliocentric theory
1632: John Ray, water thermometer
1636: G. Pers de Roberval, gravitational forces are mutual
attraction
1636: Marin Mersenne, speed of sound
1637: Rene Descartes, inertia, mechanistic physics
1637: Rene Descartes, refraction, rainbow and clouds
1638: Galileo Galilei, motion and friction
1639: Jeremiah Horrocks, observes a transit of Venus
1640: Evangelista Torricelli, theory of hydrodynamics
1641: Ferdinand II, sealed thermometer
1642: Blaise Pascal, mechanical calculator
1644: Evangelista Torricelli, mercury barometer and artificial
vacuum
1645: Ismael Boulliau, inverse square law for central force acting
on planets
1648: Blaise Pascal, explains barometer as a result of atmospheric
pressure
1650: Otto von Guericke, demonstration of the power of vacuum using
two large hemispheres and 8 horses
1650: Giovani Riccioli, discovers first binary star
1654: Ferdinand II, sealed thermometer
1655: Christiaan Huygens, rings and moons of Saturn
1657: Christiaan Huygens, pendulum clock
1657: Pierre Fermat, Fermat's principle in optics
1659: Christiaan Huygens, surface features on Mars
1660: Otto von Guericke, electrostatic machine
1660: Robert Boyle, sound will not travel in a vacuum
1661: Robert Boyle, corpuscular theory of matter
1661: Robert Boyle, chemical elements, acids and alkalis
1662: Robert Boyle, Boyle's law for ideal gases relating volume to
pressure
1663: Blaise Pascal, isotropy of pressure
1663: James Gregory, describes a reflecting telescope
1663: Huygens, Wallace and Wren, laws of elastic collisions
1664: Robert Hooke, the great red spot of Jupiter
1664: Rene Descartes, published support for Copernican theory
1665: Isaac Newton, studies the
principles of mechanics and gravity, mass and force
1665: Giovanni Cassini, rotation periods of Jupiter, Mars and Venus
1665: Francesco Grimaldi, his wave theory of light is published
1665: Hooke, Huygens, colours of oil film explained by wave theory
of light and interference
1665: Robert Hooke, studies with a microscope
1665: Robert Boyle, air is necessary for candles to burn
1666: Giovanni Cassini, sees mars northern ice cap
1666: Robert Boyle, fluid experiments
1666: Isaac Newton, studies spectrum of light
1666: Isaac Newton, begins work on laws of mechanics and gravitation
1667: Jean Picard, observes anomalies in star positions which are
later explained as aberration
1668: John Wallis, conservation of momentum
1668: Isaac Newton, reflecting telescope
1669: Erasmus Bartholin, describes double refraction caused by
polarisation effects of Iceland feldspar
1669: Hennig Brand, element phosphorus
1669: Gottfreid Leibniz, first concepts of action
1670: Robert Boyle, produces hydrogen by reacting metals with acid
1671: Giovanni Cassini, accurate measurement of distance to Mars and
scale of solar system
1671: Giovanni Cassini, finds Iapetus
1672: Giovanni Cassini, finds Rhea
1672: Jean Richer, the period of a pendulum varies with latitude
1672: Isaac Newton, variation of pendulum is due to equatorial bulge
1673: Ignace Pardies, wave explanation for refraction of light
1673: Christiaan Huygens, laws of centripetal force
1674: Robert Hooke, attempt to explain planetary motion as a balance
of centfifugal force and gravitational attraction
1675: Ole Romer, rough estimate of speed of light
1675: Isaac Newton, delivers his theory of light
1676: Giovanni Cassini, Saturn has separated rings which must be
composed of small objects
1676: Olaus Roemer, measured the speed of light by observing
Jupiter's moons
1676: Robert Hooke, law of elasticity and springs
1676: Edme Mariotte, pressure is inversely proportional to volume
(Boyle's law) and height of atmosphere
1678: Robert Hooke, inverse square law of gravity
1678: Christiaan Huygens, writes about wave theory of light
1679: Christiaan Huygens, polarisation of light
1680: Isaac Newton, demonstrates that inverse square law implies
eliptical orbits
1684: Giovanni Cassini, finds Dione and Tethys
1684: Isaac Newton, inverse square law and mass dependence of
gravity
1684: Gottfreid Leibniz, differential calculus
1687: Isaac Newton, publishes laws of motion and gravitation
1687: Isaac Newton, publishes analysis of sound propagation
1688: P. Varignon, addition of forces
1690: Christiaan Huygens, principle of Huygens, secondary waves
1690: John Locke, knowledge comes only from experience and
sensations
1692: Richard Bentley, why do stars not fall together under
gravitation?
TIMELINE 1700 TO 1799
1702: Francis Hauksbee, rarified air glows during electrical
discharge
1704: Isaac Newton, publishes corpuscular theory of light and colour
1705: Edmund Halley, tracked comets, predicts a return in 1758 ==>
1709: Gabriel Fahrenheit, alcohol thermometer
1710: George Berkeley, idealist philosophy against materialist
1714: Gottfreid Leibniz, energy conservation
1714: Gottfreid Leibniz, rejection of absolute space and time
1714: Gabriel Fahrenheit, mercury thermometer
1718: Edmund Halley, measures proper motion of stars
1720: Edmund Halley, early form of Olbers' paradox
1721: George Berkeley, space exists because of matter in it
1724: Gabriel Fahrenheit, supercooling of water
1727: Stephen Hales, makes oxygen
1728: James Bradley, speed of light and stellar aberration
1729: Stephen Gray, conduction of electricity
1731: Rene Reaumur, alcohol/water thermometer
1733: Charles Du Fay, recognises distinction between positive and
negative electric charge
1735: Antonio de Ulloa, element platinum
1736: Leonhard Euler, differential equations in mechanics
1738: Daniel Bernoulli, kinetic theory of gas
1738: Daniel Bernoulli, hydrodynamics
1739: Georg Brandt, element cobalt
1740: Pierre Bouguer, gravitational anomalies
1742: Anders Celsius, reverse centigrade temperature scale
1743: Jean Christin, Celsius temperature scale
1743: Jean d'Alembert, energy in Newtonian mechanics
1744: Pierre de Maupertuis, principle of least action
1744: Jean d'Alembert, theory of fluid dynamics
1744: Leonhard Euler, EulerLagrange equations
1744: Mikhail Lomonosov, heat is a form of motion
1745: von Kleist, van Musschenbroek, Leyden jar for electric charge
storage
1746: Andreas Marggraf, rediscovery of element zinc
1746: Leonhard Euler, wave theory of light refraction and dispersion
1747: d'Alembert, Euler, solution of equations for vibrating string
1748: Mikhail Lomonosov, conservation of mass and energy
1749: Thomas Melvill, early spectrscopy and yellow line of sodium in
salt
1750: Benjamin Franklin, theory of electricity and lightning
1750: John Michell, magnetic induction
1750: John Michell, inverse square law for magnetic fields
1750: Thomas Wright, Milky Way could be due to slab like
distribution of stars
1751: Benjamin Franklin, electricity can magnetise needles
1751: Frederik Cronstedt, element nickel
1752: Jean d'Alembert, viscosity
1754: Joseph Black, discovery of carbon dioxide showing that there
are gases other than air
1755: Immanuel Kant, theory that the universe formed from a spinning
nebula in an infinite hierarchy
1756: William Cullen, evaporation causes cooling
1761: Mikhail Lomonosov, Venus has an atmosphere
1761: Joseph Black, discovery and measurements of latent and
specific heats
1761: John Harrison, portable chronometer
1764: Charles Messier, finds first nebula Dumbell
1765: Leonhard Euler, rigid body motions
1766: Joseph Priestley, inverse square law for electric charge
1766: Henry Cavendish, hydrogen is an element
1771: Luigi Galvani, electricity in animals
1772: Carl Scheele, saw air as two gases one of which encouraged
combustion
1772: Daniel Rutherford, nitrogen
1772: Antoine Lavoisier, conservation of mass in chemical reactions
1772: Joseph Lagrange, theory of Lagrange points
1774: Priestley, Scheele, element oxygen
1774: Nevil Maskelyne, gravitational deflection of plumb line by a
mountain
1774: Carl Scheele, element chlorine
1774: Johann Gahn, element manganese
1775: Alessandro Volta, electrical condenser
1776: PierreSimon Laplace, deterministic causality
1777: Antoine Lavoisier, composition of air and burning as a
chemical reaction
1779: Charles Augustin de Coulomb, Coulomb's law of friction
1781: Immanuel Kant, Critique of pure reason
1781: William Herschel, discovery of Uranus
1781: Carl Scheele, element molybdenum in ore
1781: Charles Messier, catalogue of nebulae
1781: Heinrich Olbers, Uranus is a planet, not a comet
1782: Jacob Hjelm, isolation of element molybdenum
1782: Franz von Reichstein, element tellurium in ores
1782: William Herschel, catalog of double stars
1782: William Herschel, sun's motion through space
1783: John Michell, Newtonian black hole
1783: Fausto and Juan José de Elhuyar, element tungsten
1783: Rene Hauy, nature of crystals
1784: Henry Cavendish, water is a compound of oxygen and hydrogen
1784: Pierre Laplace, electrostatic potential
1784: John Goodricke, furst variable star1785: Charles Augustin de Coulomb, electric force proportional to
product of charges and inverse square of distance
1786: Antoine Lavoisier, distinction between elements and compounds
1787: Antoine Lavoisier, system for naming chemicals
1787: JacquesAlexander Charles, law of gas expansion with
temperature
1788: Joseph Lagrange, Lagrangian mechanics
1788: John Hunter, Diffusion of heat
1782: William Herschel, finds Mimas and Enceladus
1789: Antoine Lavoisier, Conservation of mass in chemical reactions
1789: Martin Klaproth, elements zirconium and uranium in compounds
1790: Definition of metric system in France
1790: Adair Crawford, element strontium in compounds
1791: William Gregor, element titanium in compounds
1794: Johann Gadolin, element yttrium in compounds
1794: Pierre Laplace, analysis of Newtonian black hole
1796: Alessandro Volta, chemical batteries and voltage
1797: Henry Cavendish, measured the gravitational constant with a
torsion balance
1797: Nicholas Vauquelin, element berylium identified in gem stones
1797: Nicholas Vauquelin, element chromium
1798: Benjamin Thompson, heat generated equals work done
1798: M. Klaproth, isolation of element tellurium
1798: Humphry Davy, Transmission of heat through vacuum
1798: Benjamin Rumford, experimental relation between work done and
heat generated
TIMELINE 1800 TO 1899
1800: William Herschel, infrared rays from the Sun
1801: Johann Ritter, Ultraviolet rays
1801: Johann von Soldner, predicted Newtonian bending of light by
sun
1801: Giuseppe Piazzi, first asteroid Ceres
1801: Humphry Davy, Electric arc
1801: Andres Manuel del Rio, compounds of element vanadium
1801: Charles Hatchett, element niobium in ores
1802: Heinrich Olbers, second asteroid Pallas
1802: Anders Ekeberg, element tantalum
1802: William Wollaston, dark lines in solar spectrum
1802: William Herschel, double stars are bodies in mutual orbit
1802: Thomas Young, interference and wave description of light
1802: Humphry Davy, electrochemistry
1802: Joseph GayLussac, relation of volume to temperature of gases
at fixed pressure
1803: William Wollaston, elements rhodium and palladium
1803: Smithson Tennant, elements osmium and iridium
1804: John Dalton, Law of partial pressures, Dalton's law
1807: Humphry Davy, isolation of elements sodium and potassium
1808: Humphry Davy, isolation of elements magnesium, strontium,
barium and calcium
1808: Davy, GayLussac and Thenard, isolation of element boron
1808: Joseph GayLussac, Law of gas volumes in chemical reactions
1808: John Dalton, atomic theory of chemical reactions
1808: Etienne Malus, polarization of reflected light
1809: SimeonDenis Poisson, Poisson brackets in mechanics
1811: Amedeo Avogadro, molecular theory of gases and Avogadro's law
1811: JeanBaptiste Fourier, harmonic analysis
1811: Bernard Courtois, element iodine
1812: David Brewster, behaviour of polarized light
1814: Joseph von Fraunhofer, spectroscope
1815: William Prout, atomic weights of elements are multiples of
that for hydrogen
1815: Augustin Fresnel, theory of light diffraction
1816: Joseph von Fraunhofer, absorption lines in sun's spectrum
1817: Young and Fresnel, transverse nature of light
1817: Johan Arfvedson, element lithium
1817: Friedrich Strohmeyer, element cadmium
1817: Jöautns Berzelius, element selenium
1818: Augustin Fresnel, ether as absolute rest frame
1819: Dulong and Petit, relation of specific heats to atomic weight
in 12 solid elements
1820: Andre Ampere, force on an electric current in a magnetic field
1820: Hans Christian Oersted, an electric current deflects a
magnetized needle
1820: Biot and Savart, force law between an electric current and a
magnetic field
1821: Thomas Seebeck, thermocouple and thermoelectricity
1821: Joseph von Fraunhofer, diffraction grating
1821: Michael Faraday, plotted the
magnetic field around a conductor
1821: Michael Faraday, first electric motor
1822: Andre Ampere, two wires with electric currents attract
1822: Charles Babbage, a prototype calculating machine
1822: Mary Mantell, first dinosaur fossil
1823: Michael Faraday, liquifies chlorine
1823: John William Herschel, suggests identification of chemical
composition from spectrum
1823: William Sturgeon, electromagnets
1823: Heinrich Olbers, why is the sky dark?
1823: Johann Schweigger, galvanometer
1824: Sadi Carnot, heat transfer goes from hot body to cold body
1824: Jöautns Berzelius , element silicon
1824: Jöautns Berzelius , isolation of element zirconium
1825: Hans Christian Oersted, isolation of element aluminum
1826: AntoineJ. Balard, element bromine
1827: Georg Ohm, electrical resistance and Ohm's law ==>
1827: Robert Brown, Brownian motion
1828: Friedrich Wohler, isolation of element yttrium
1829: Johann Wolfgang, triads of chemical elements
1829: Thomas Graham, gas diffusion law
1829: Jons Berzelius, element thorium
1830: Charles Lyell, proposition that Earth is several million years
old
1830: Nils Sefstrom, rediscovery and naming of vanadium
1831: Michael Faraday, a moving magnet induces an electric current
1831: Michael Faraday, magnetic lines of force
1831: Michael Faraday, the electric dynamo
1831: Michael Faraday, the electric transformer
1833: Michael Faraday, laws of electrolysis
1833: Joseph Henry, self inductance
1834: Emile Clapeyron, entropy
1834: John Scott Russell, observed solitary waves in a canal
1834: William Hamilton, principle of least action and Hamiltonian
mechanics
1834: Heinrich Lenz, Law of electromagnetic forces
1835: GustavGaspard Coriolis, Coriolis force
1838: Bessel, Henderson, Struve, first measurements of distance to a
star by parallax
1839: Karl Mosander Lanthanum
1840: Rive Marcet, anomolous specific heat of diamond
1840: Joule and Helmholtz, electricity is a form of energy
1840: Auguste Comte, suggests that nature and composition of stars
will never be known
1841: EugeneMelchoir Peligot, isolation of element uranium
1842: Christian Doppler, theory of Doppler Effect for sound and light
1842: Justin von Mayer, conservation of heat and mechanical energy
1843: James Joule, mechanical and electrical equivalent of heat
1843: Howard Aiken, first mechanical programmable calculator
1844: Kark Klaus, element 44, ruthenium
1845: Michael Faraday, rotation of polarized light by magnetism
1845: Christopher BuysBallet, confirmation of Doppler effect for
sound using trumpeters on a train
1845: William Parsons: sees first spiral galaxy
1846: Adams, Le Verrier, predicted position of Neptune
1846: Gustav Kirchhoff, Kirchoff's laws of electrical networks
1846: William Thomson (Kelvin), incorrectly estimates Earth to be
100 million years old by heat
1846: Jahanne Galle, Neptune
1846: William Lassell, finds Titan
1847: Hermann von Helmholtz, conservation of energy in Newtonian
mechanics and gravity
1848: William Thomson (Kelvin), absolute temperature scale
1848: James Joule, average velocity of gas molecules from kinetic
theory
1849: Armand Fizeau, first accurate measurement of the velocity of
light in the laboratory using a toothed wheel
1850: Rudolf Clausius, generalized second law of thermodynamics
1850: Jean Foucault, light travels slower in water than in air
1850: Michael Faraday, experiments to find link between gravity and
electromagnetism fail
1851: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), dynamical theory of heat
1851: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), absolute zero temperature
1851: Armand Fizeau, velocity of light in moving medium
1851: Franz Neumann, laws of electricmagnetic induction
1851: Jean Foucault, demonstrates rotation of Earth with a pendulum
1852: Jean Foucault, first gyroscope
1852: Joule, Thomson, an expanding gas cools
1853: Anders Angstrom, measured hydrogen spectral lines
1854: Hermann von Helmholtz, heat death of the universe
1854: Bernhard Riemann, possibility of space curvature on small or
large scales
1854: George Airy, estimate of Earth mass from underground gravity
1855: William Parsons, spiral galaxies
1855: James Clerk Maxwell, mathematics of Faraday's lines of force
==>
1857: James Clerk Maxwell, nature of Saturn's rings
1858: Wallace and Darwin, natural selection of species
1858: Balfour Stewart, conjecture equivalent to Kirchoff's law
1859:Richard Carrington, sees first solar flare
1859: Hittorf and Plucker, cathode rays
1859: Bunsen and Kirchhoff, measurement of spectral line frequencies
1859: Urbain Le Verrier, anomalous perihelion shift of Mercury
1860: Gustav Kirchhoff, Kirchoff's Law and black body problem
1860: Maxwell and Waterston, equipartition theorem of statistical
mechanics
1861: von Bunsen, Kirchhoff, elements caesium and rubidium found in
spectra
1861: William Crookes, element thallium found by its spectra
1861: Johann Madler, Olbers's paradox would be resolved if the
universe had a finite age
1862: Anders Angstrom, observed hydrogen in the sun
1863: William Huggins, stellar spectra indicate that stars are made
of same elements as found on Earth
1863: Reich, Richter, element indium from its spectra
1864: John Newlands, chemical law of octaves
1864: James Clerk Maxwell, equations of electromagnetic wave
propagation in the ether
1865: Rudolf Clausius, introduction of the term entropy
1867: James Clerk Maxwell, statistical physics and thermal
equilibrium
1867: Henry Roscoe, isolation of element vanadium
1868: PierreJules Janssen, lines of helium observed in the sun's
spectrum
1868: Norman Lockyer, William Crookes, element helium recognized and named
1868: William Huggins, Doppler shifts of stellar spectra
1869: Dmitri Mendeleyev, periodic table of elements
1871: Dmitri Mendeleyev, prediction of new elements such as
scandium, germanium, technetium, francium and gallium
1871: Ludwig Boltzmann, classical explanation of DulongPetit
specific heats
1871: Tyndall and Rayleigh, light scattering and why the sky is
blue.
1872: Ludwig Boltzmann, Htheorem
1873: James Clerk Maxwell, electromagnetic nature of light and
prediction of radio waves
1873: Johannes van der Waals, intermolecular forces in fluids
1874: George Stoney, estimated the unit of charge and named it the
electron
1875: Heinrich Weber, specific heat curves of solids
1875: James Clerk Maxwell, atoms must have a structure
1875: PaulEmile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, element gallium
1877: Johann Loschmidt, questions validity of second law for time
symmetric dynamics
1877: Ludwig Boltzmann, Boltzmann's probability equation for entropy
1877: Asaph Hall, two moons of Mars
1877: Cailletet and Pictet, liquid oxygen and nitrogen
1878: Josiah Willard Gibbs, thermodynamics of chemistry and phase
changes
1879: Josef Stefan, empirical discovery of total radiation law,
(Stefan's law)
1879: Lars Fredrik Nilson, element scandium
1879: Willaim Crookes, cathode rays may be negatively charged
particles
1879: Albert Michelson, improved measurements of the speed of light
1880: Pierre and Jacques Curie, piezoelectricity
1880: Oliver Heaviside, coaxial cable
1881: Albert Michelson, light interferometer and absence of ether
drift
1881: Josiah Willard Gibbs, vector algebra
1883: Ivan Puluy, prior discovery of Xrays
1883: Thomas Edison, thermionic emission
1883: George Fitzgerald, theory of radio transmission
1884: Ludwig Boltzmann, Derivation of Stefan's law for black bodies
1884: Oliver Heaviside,
differential equation form of Maxwell's equations
1885: Oliver Heaviside, electomagnetic propogation in cables and
telegraper's equations
1885: Johann Balmer, empirical formula for hydrogen spectral lines
1885: James Dewar, vacuum flask
1886: Henri Moissan, fluorine
1886: Clemens Winkler, element germanium
1887: Heinrich Hertz, transmission, reception and reflection of
radio waves
1887: Michelson and Morley, absence of ether drift
1887: Michelson and Morley, fine structure of hydrogen spectrum
1887: Hertz, Hallwachs, photoelectric effect
1887: Woldemar Voigt, anticipated Lorentz transform to derive
Doppler shift
1889: George Fitzgerald, length contraction
1889: Rolond von Eotvos, torsion balance to test equivalence of
inertial and gravitational mass
1890: Johannes Rydberg, empirical formulae for spectral lines and
Rydberg constant
1892: Hendrick Lorentz, theory that electricity is due to charged
particles
1893: Ernst Mach, influence of all the mass in the universe
determines what is natural motion
1893: Wilhelm Wien, derivation of black body displacement law
1893: Oliver Lodge, ether could not be carried along by matter
1894: Rayleigh and Ramsey, element argon
1894: Heinrich Hertz, radio waves travel at speed of light and can
be refracted and polarized
1894: James Dewar, liquid oxygen
1894: Pierre Curie, why are there no magnetic monopoles?
1895:
Pierre Curie, isolation of helium from uranium
ore
1895: Wilhelm Roentgen, Xrays
1895: Korteweg and de Vries, explanation of solitary waves
1895: JeanBaptiste Perrin, cathode rays are negative particles
1895: Pierre Curie, loss of magnetism at high temperature, (Curie
point)
1895: Hendrick Lorentz, first form of Lorentz transformation
1895: Hendrick Lorentz, electromagnetic force on a charged particle
1896: Wilhelm Wien, conjectured exponential black body law
1896: Pieter Zeeman, spectral line splitting by magnetic field
1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel, natural radioactivity in uranium ore
1897: Ludwig Boltzmann, time reversal symmetry of electromagnetism
1897: Friedrich Paschen, verification of Wien's black body law at
long wavelengths
1897: Kaufmann, J.J. Thomson, measurement of electron charge to mass
ratio by deflection of cathode rays
1897: Weichert, J.J. Thomson, conjectured existence of light
electron
1898: James Dewar, liquid hydrogen
1898: Guglielmo Marconi, transmission of signals across the English
channel
1898: Pierre and Marie Curie, separation of radioactive elements,
radium and polonium
1898: Ramsey and Travers, neon, krypton, xenon
1898: Joseph Larmor, complete form of Lorentz transformation
1898: Henri Poincare, questions absolute time and simultaniety
1898: Ernest Rutherford, alpha and beta radiation
1899: Joseph John Thomson, measurement of the charge and mass of the
electron
1899: Andre Debierne, element actinium
1899: Max Planck, universal scale of measurement from fundamental
constants
TIMELINE 1900 TO 1949
1900: Lord Rayleigh, statistical derivation of short wavelength
black body law
1900: Ernest Rutherford, first determination of a radioactive
halflife
1900: Antoine Henri Becquerel, suggests that beta rays are electrons
1900: Lummer, Pringsheim, Rubens, Kurlbaum, failure of Wien's black
body law at short wavelengths
1900: Max Planck, light quanta in black body radiation, Planck's
black body law and Planck's constant
1900: Paul Villard, gamma rays
1900: Friedrich Dorn, element 86, radon
1900: Pyotr Lebedev, radiation pressure measured
1901: Max Planck, determination of Planck's constant, Boltzmann's
constant, Avogadro's number and the charge on electron
1901: Guglielmo Marconi, Transmission of Morse signals across the
Atlantic
1902: Philipp Lenard, intensity law in photoelectric effect
1902: Rutherford and Soddy, theory of transmutation by radiation and
first use of the term "atomic energy"
1902: Kelvin, Thomson, plum pudding model of the atom
1902: Heaviside and Kennelly, Ionized layer capable of reflecting
radio waves
1903: Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles have a positive charge
1903: Curie and Laborde, radioactive energy released by radium is
large
1903: Johannes Stark, the power of the sun may be due to genesis of
chemical elements
1903: Philipp Lenard, model of atom as two separated opposite
charges1904: Albert Einstein,
energyfrequency relation of light quanta
1904: Hendrik Lorentz, the completed Lorentz transformations
1904: Hantaro Nagaoka, planetary model of the atom
1904: Ambrose Flemming, diode valve and rectifier
1904: Henri Poincare, conjectured light speed as physical limit
1904: Ernest Rutherford, age of Earth by radioactvity dating
1905: Albert Einstein, explains Brownian motion by kinetic theory
1905: Albert Einstein, lightquantum theory for photoelectric law
1905: Albert Einstein, special relativity
1905: Paul Langevin, atomic theory of paramagnetism
1905: Percival Lowell, postulates a ninth planet beyond Neptune
1905: Bragg and Kleeman, alphaparticles have discrete energies
1905: Hermann Nernst, third law of thermodynamics
1905: Albert Einstein, equivalence of mass and energy
1906: Albert Einstein, quantum explanation of specific heat laws for
solids
1906: Joseph Thomson, Thomson scattering of Xray photons and number
of electrons in an atom
1906: Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles scatter in air
1906: Lee de Forest, triode valve
1907: Albert Einstein, equivalence principle and gravitational
redshift
1907: Urbain and von Welsbach, element 71, lutetium
1908: Hermann Minkowski, geometric unification of space and time
1908: Hans Geiger, Geiger counter for detecting radioactivity
1908: Heike KammerlinghOnnes, liquid helium
1908: Geiger, Royds, Rutherford, identify alpha particles as helium
nuclei
1909: Albert Einstein, particlewave duality of photons
1909: Johannes Stark, momentum of photons
1909: Geiger and Marsden, anomolous scattering of alpha particles on
gold foil
1909: Robert Millikan, measured the charge on the electron
1910: Albert Einstein, why the sky is blue
1910: Matthew Hunter, isolation of element titanium
1910: Theodor Wulf, excess atmospheric radiation
1911: Victor Hess, high altitude radiation from space
1911: Heike KammerlinghOnnes, superconductivity
1911: Ernest Rutherford, Infers the nucleus from the alpha
scattering result
1912: Joseph Thomson, mass spectrometry and separation of isotopes
1912: Henrietta Leavitt, period to luminosity relationship for
Cepheid variable stars
1912: Robert Millikan, measurement of Planck's constant
1912: Peter Debye, derivation of specific heat laws to low
temperatures
1912: Charles Wilson, cloud chamber
1912: Max Von Laue, Xrays are explained as electromagnetic
radiation by diffraction
1912: Albert Einstein, curvature of spacetime
1912: Vesto Melvin Slipher, observes blueshift of andromeda galaxy
1912: Gustav Mie, nonlinear field theories
1913: Niels Bohr, quantum theory of atomic orbits
1913: Niels Bohr, radioactivity as nuclear property
1913: JeanBaptiste Perrin, theory of size of atoms and molecules
1913: Fajans and Gohring, element 91, protactinium
1913: Bragg and Bragg, Xray diffraction and crystal structure
1913: Hans Geiger, relation of atomic number to nuclear charge
1913: Johannes Stark, splitting of hydrogen spectral lines in
electric field
1913: Frederick Soddy, the term "isotope"
1914: James Chadwick, primary beta spectrum is continuous and shows
an energy anomaly
1914: Harry Moseley, used Xrays to confirm the correspondence
between electric charge of nucleus and atomic number
1914: Ejnar Hertzsprung, measured distance to Large Magellanic Cloud
using Cepheid variable stars
1914: Rutherford, da Costa Andrade, gamma rays identified as hard
photons
1915: Albert Einstein, general relativity
1915: David Hilbert, action principle for gravitational field
equations
1915: Albert Einstein, prediction of light bending and explanation
for perihelion shift of Mercury
1916: Robert Millikan, verification of energy law in photoelectric
effect
1916: Albert Einstein, prediction of gravitational waves
1916: Albert Einstein, conservation of energymomentum in general
relativity
1916: Karl Schwarzschild, singular static solution of gravitational
field equations which describes a minimal black hole
1916: Arnold Sommerfeld, further atomic quantum numbers and fine
structure of spectra, fine structure constant
1917: Harlow Shapley, estimates the diameter of the galaxy as 100000
parsecs
1917: Albert Einstein, introduction of the cosmological constant and
a steady state model of the universe
1917: Vesto Melvin Slipher, observes that most galaxies have
redshifts
1917: Albert Einstein, theory of stimulated emission and loss of
determinism
1917: Willem de Sitter, describes a model of a static universe with
no matter
1917: Arthur Eddington, gravitational energy is insufficient to
account for the energy output of stars
1917: Rutherford, Marsden, artificial transmutation, hydrogen and
oxygen from nitrogen
1918: Harlow Shapley, measured distance to globular clusters using
Cepheid variable stars
1918: Harlow Shapley, determined the size and shape of our galaxy
1918: Reissner and Nordstrom, solution of Einstein's equations which
describe a charged black hole
1918: Emmy Noether, The mathematical relationships between symmetry
and conservation laws in classical physics
1918: Francis Aston, mass spectrometer
1918: Herman Weyl, gauge theory
1919: Ernest Rutherford, existence of the proton in nucleus
1919: Oliver Lodge, prediction of gravitational lensing
1919: Francis Aston, hydrogen fusion to helium will release a lot of
energy
1919: Crommelin, Eddington, verification of Einstein's prediction of
starlight deflection during an eclipse
1919: Arthur Eddington, predicts the size of red giants using
stellar models
1920: Ernest Rutherford, prediction of neutron
1920: Anderson, Michelson, Pease, size of star Betelgeuse using
stellar interferometry
1920: Harkins, Eddington, fusion of hydrogen could be the energy
source of stars
1920: Shapley and Curtis, The Great Debate over the scale and
structure of the universe
1921: Theodor Kaluza, unification of electromagnetics and gravity by
introducing an extra dimension
1921: Bieler and Chadwick, evidence for a strong nuclear interaction
1921: Stern and Gerlach, measurement of atomic magnetic moments
1921: Charles Bury, electronic structure of elements from their
chemistry
1922: Cornelius Lanczos, transformation of De Sitter universe to an
expanding form
1922: Alexsandr Friedmann, a model of an expanding/oscillating
universe with matter included
1923: Compton and Debye, theory of Compton effect
1923: Arthur Compton, verification of Compton effect confirms photon
as particle
1923: Louis de Broglie, predicts wave nature of particles
1923: Davisson and Kunsman, electron diffraction
1923: Coster and von Hevesy, element 72, hafnium
1923: Herman Weyl, De Sitter universe would predict a linear
relation between distance and redshift
1924: Edwin Hubble, measured the distance to other galaxies using
Cepheid variables proving that they lie outside our own
1924: Edward Appleton, ionosphere
1924: Satyendra Bose, derivation of Planck's law
1924: Bose and Einstein, statistics of photons and BoseEinstein
condensate
1924: Albert Einstein, statistical physics of quantum boson
molecular gas
1924: Wolfgang Pauli, explanation of Zeeman effect and twovaluedness
of electron state
1924: Wolfgang Pauli, the exclusion principle
1924: Ludwik Siberstein, claims a redshift law for nebulae
1925: Walter Elsasser, explanation of electron diffraction as wave
property of matter
1925: Vesto Melvin Slipher, redshifts of galaxies suggest a
distance/velocity relationship
1925: Robert Millikan, rediscovery of "cosmic rays" in upper
atmosphere
1925: Noddack, Tacke, Berg, element 75, rhenium
1925: Werner Heisenberg, transition amplitude theory of quantum
mechanics
1925: Born and Jordan, matrix interpretation of Heisenberg's quantum
mechanics
1925: Paul Dirac, qnumber theory of general quantum mechanics
1925: Pascual Jordan, second quantization
1925: Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, electron spin
1925: Enrico Fermi, statistics of electrons
1926: Gilbert Lewis, first use of the term photon
1926: Oskar Klein, KaluzaKlein theory
1926: Wolfgang Pauli, derivation of spectrum of hydrogen atom by
matrix methods
1926: Erwin Schroedinger, the particle wave equation
1926: Erwin Schroedinger, derivation of spectrum of hydrogen atom
using the wave equation
1926: Eckart, Pauli, Schroedinger, equivalence of wave equation and
matrix mechanics
1926: Max Born, probability interpretation of wave function
1926: Albert Einstein, "God does not play dice"
1926: Paul Dirac, distinction between bosons and fermions, symmetry
and antisymmetry of wave function
1926: Dirac, Jordan, canonical transformation theory for quantum
mechanics
1926: Klein, Fock and Gordon, relativistic wave equation for scalar
particles
1926: Ralph Fowler, suggests that white dwarf stars are explained by
the exclusion principle
1926: Born, Heisenberg, Jordan, model of a quantized field
1926: Wolfgang Pauli, momentum and position cannot be known
simultaneously
1926: Werner Heisenberg, the uncertainty principle
1927: Davisson, Germer, Thomson, verification of electron
diffraction by a crystal
1927: Jan Oort, observation of galactic rotation and spiral shape of
our galaxy
1927: Niels Bohr, principle of complementarity
1927: Paul Dirac, quantization of electromagnetic field, bosonic
creation and annihilation operators, virtual particles, zero point
energy
1927: Eugene Wigner, conservation of parity
1927: Friedrich Hund, quantum tunneling
1927: Heitler and London, quantum theory can explain chemical
bonding
1927: Fritz London, electromagnetic gauge is phase of Schroedinger
equation
1927: Georges Lemaitre, models of an expanding universe
1927: Niels Bohr, Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
1928: Condon, Gamow, Gurney, alpha emission is due to quantum
tunneling
1928: Paul Dirac, relativistic equation of the spinhalf electron
1928: Willem Keeson, phase transition in liquid Helium
1928: Jordan, Pauli, quantum field theory of free fields
1928: Rolf Wideroe, first prototype high energy accelerator
1928: Heisenberg, Weyl, group representation theory in quantum
mechanics
1929: quartz crystal clock
1929: Ernest Lawrence, cyclotron
1929: Robert van de Graaff, Van de Graaff generator
1929: Heisenberg, Pauli, interacting quantum field theory and
divergences
1929: J. Robert Oppenheimer, divergence of electron selfenergy
1929: Paul Dirac, electron sea and hole theory
1929: Edwin Hubble, first measurement of Hubble's constant leading
to the conclusion that the Universe is expanding
1929: Bothe, Kolhorster, cosmic rays are charged particles
1930: Clyde Tombaugh, finds Pluto
1930: Becker, Bothe, observed neutral rays later identified as
neutrons
1930: Paul Dirac, systematic canonical quantization
1930: Arthur Eddington, Einstein's static universe is unstable
1930: Hartree and Fock, multiparticle quantum mechanics
1931: Dirac, Oppenheimer, Weyl, prediction of antimatter
1931: Albert Einstein, discard cosmological constant, oscillating
cosmology
1931: Carl Jansky, radio astronomy
1931: Georges Lemaitre, the primeval atom as origin of the universe
1931: Isidor Rabi, principle of population inversion
1931: Wolfgang Pauli, neutrino as explanation for missing energy and
spin in weak nuclear decay
1931: Eugene Wigner, symmetry in quantum mechanics
1931: Paul Dirac, magnetic monopoles can explain quantum of charge
1932: Raman and Bhagavantam, verification that photon is spin one
1932: Einstein, De Sitter, flat expanding cosmology
1932: James Chadwick, identified the neutron
1932: Knoll and Ruska, electron microscope
1932: Carl Anderson, positron from cosmic rays
1932: Cockroft and Walton, linear proton accelerators to 700 keV and
verification of mass/energy equivalence
1932: Karl Jansky, first radio astronomy
1932: Dmitri Iwanenko, neutron as a constituent of nucleus
1932: Richard Tolman, thermodynamics of oscillating cyclic universe
1932: Vladimir Fock, Fock space
1932: Urey, Brickwedde, Murphy, Washburn, deuterium
1932: Werner Heisenberg, nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons
1932: Lev Davidovich Landau, proposed existence of neutron stars
1933: Paul Ehrenfest, theory of second order phase transitions
1933: Blackett and Occhialini, electronpositron creation and
annihilation
1933: Esterman, Frisch and Stern, measurement of proton magnetic
moment
1933: Baade and Zwicky, collapse of a white dwarf may set off a
supernova and leave a neutron star
1933: Fritz Zwicky, dark matter in galactic clusters
1933: Arthur Milne, cosmological principle of large scale
homogeneity
1933: Harlow Shapley, observation of structure in galaxy
distribution
1934: Pavel Cherenkov, Cherenkov radiation
1934: Chadwick and Goldhaber, precise measurement of neutron mass
1934: Chadwick and Goldhaber, measurement of nuclear force
1934: Francis Perrin, neutrino is massless
1934: Grote Reber, discrete radio source in Cygnus
1934: Joliot and CurieJoliot, induced radioactivity
1934: Enrico Fermi, Fermi theory of weak interaction and beta decay
1934: Esterman and Stern, magnetic moment of neutron
1934: Fermi and Hahn, fission observed
1934: Paul Dirac, polarisation of the vacuum and more divergence in
QED
1935: Yukawa, Stueckelberg, theory of strong nuclear force and the
pimeson
1935: J. Robert Oppenheimer, spin statistics
1935: Enrico Fermi, hypothesis of transuranic elements
1935: Robertson, Walker, most general homogenious isotropic universe
1935: Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, EPR Paradox of nonlocality in
quantum mechanics
1935: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, calculation of mass limit for
stellar collapse of a white dwarf star
1935: Erwin Schroedinger, quantum cat paradox
1935: Robert WatsonWatt, radar
1936: Niels Bohr, compound nucleus
1936: Anderson and Neddermeyer, muon in cosmic rays
1936: Leon Brillouin, theory of wave guides
1936: Breit and Coll, isotopic spin
1936: Alan Turing, computability
1937: Pyotr Kapitza, superfluidity of helium II
1937: Perrier and Segre, element 37, technetium, first element made
artificially
1937: Majorana, symmetric theory of electron and positron
1937: Julian Schwinger, neutron spin is half
1937: Blau, Wambacher, photographic emulsion as particle detector
1937: Bloch and Nordsieck, operator normal ordering
1937: John Wheeler, Smatrix theory
1938: Oppenheimer and Serber, there is an upper mass limit for
stability of neutron stars
1938: Bethe, Critchfield, von Weizsacker, stars are powered by
nuclear fusion CNcycle
1938: Isador Rabi, magnetic resonance
1938: Hahn, Strassman, fission induced with neutrons
1938: Oskar Klein, new field equations from higher dimensional
KaluzaKlein theory
1938: Fritz Zwicky, clusters of galaxies
1938: Ernest Stueckelberg, suggests baryon number conservation
1938: Hendrick Kramers, mass renormalization
1938: Frisch and Meitner, theory of uranium fission
1939: Joliot and CurieJoliot, Szilard, theory of nuclear chain
reaction
1939: Oppenheimer and Snyder, a collapsing neutron star will form a
black hole.
1939: Bohr, Wheeler, Khariton, Zel'dovich, theory of U235
fission and chain reaction.
1939: Bloch and Alvarez, measurement of the neutron magnetic moment
1939: Rossi, Van Norman, Hilbery, Muon decay
1939: Teller, Szilard, Einstein, warning letter to Roosevelt
1939: Peierls and Frisch, critical mass and theory of ABomb
1939: Marguerite Perey, element 87, francium
1940: MacMillan, Abelson, element 93, neptunium, first transuranian
elements
1940: Corson, MacKenzie, Segre, element 85, astatine synthesized
1941: MacMillan, Kennedy, Seaborg, Wahl, element 94, plutonium,
second transuranian elements
1941: Lev Davidovich Landau, theory of superfluids
1941: Rossi and Hall, nuon decay used to verify relativistic time
dilation
1941: Mckellar and Adams, Cosmic cyanogen observed to be at
temperature of CBR, but significance not recognized
1941: "Manhatten Project" is founded to develop atomic bomb
1942: Enrico Fermi, the first self sustaining fission reaction
1942: Grote Reber, radio map of the sky
1943: Ernest Stueckelberg, renormalization of QED
1943: Sakata, Inoue, theory of pion decay to muons
1944: Lars Onsager, general theory of phase transitions
1944: Seaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso, Thompson, elements 95;
americium, 96; curium
1944: LeprinceRinguet and Lheritier, the K+ found in cosmic rays
1944:Gerard Kuiper, atmosphere on Yitan1945: Robert Oppenheimer et al, atomic bomb
1945: first electronic computer ENIAC
1946: James Hey Discovery of radio source Cygnus A
1946: George Gamow Cold big bang model
1946: Bloch and Purcell nuclear magnetic resonance
1947: Claude Shannon, information
theory
1947: Conversi, Pancini, Piccioni, indication that the muon is not
the mediator of the strong force
1947: Hartmut Kallman, scintillation counter
1947: Denis Gabor, theory of holograms
1947: Powell, Occhialini, negative pion found
1947: Willis Lamb, fine structure of hydrogen spectrum, the Lamb
shift
1947: Hans Bethe, renormalization of Lamb shift calculation
1947: Kusch and Folley, measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment
of the electron
1947: Hartland Snyder, quantised spacetime
1948: Tomonaga, Schwinger, Feynman, renormalization of QED
1948: Alpher, Bethe and Gamow, explain nucleosynthesis in hot big
bang
1948: Alpher and Herman, prediction of cosmic background radiation
1948: Bondi, Gold, Hoyle, steady state theory of the universe
1948: Goldhaber and Goldhaber, experimental proof that beta
particles are electrons
1948: Richard Feynman, path integral approach to quantum theory
1948: Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley, semiconductors and transistors
1948: Snell and Miller, decay of the neutron
1948: Freeman Dyson, Equivalence of Feynman and SchwingerTomonaga
QED
1948: Hendrik Casimir, Theory of Casimir force
1949: Leighton, Anderson, Seriff, muon is spin half
1949: Seaborg, Ghiorso, Thompson, element 97, berkelium
1949: Haxel, Jensen, Mayer, Suess, nuclear shell model
1949: Fred Hoyle, first use of the term "big bang"
TIMELINE 1950 TO 2000
1950: Paul Dirac, first suggestion of
string theory
1950: Seaborg, Ghiorso, Street, Thompson, element 98, californium
1950: Jan Oort, theory of comet origins ==>
1950: Bjorklund, Crandall, Moyer, York, neutral pion
1950: Albert Einstein, Einstein's failed unified theory
1951: Smith and Baade, identify a radio galaxy
1951: Petermann, Stueckelberg, renormalization group
1952: Courant, Livingston, Snyder, Strong focusing principle for
particle accelerators
1952: Alvarez, Glaser, bubble chamber
1952: Seaborg et al, elements 99; einsteinium, 100; fermium
1952: Walter Baade, resolves confusion over two different types of
Cepheid variable stars
1952: Edward Teller et al, hydrogen bomb
1952: Joseph Weber, described the principle of the maser
1953: GellMann and Nishijima, strangeness
1953: Gerard de Vaucouleurs, galaxy superclusters and large scale
inhomogenieties
1953: Charles Townes, maser
1953: Alpher, Herman, Follin, first recognition of the horizon
problem in cosmology
1954: Yang and Mills, nonabelian gauge theory
1954: Low and GellMann, renormalization group revisited
1955: caesium atomic clock
1955: Martin Ryle, radio telescope interferometry
1955: John Wheeler, describes the spacetime foam at the Planck
scale
1955: Ilya Prigogine, thermodynamics of irreversible processes
1955: Carl von Weizsacker, multiple quantization and urtheory
1955: Seaborg et al, element 101, mendelevium
1955: Chamberlain, Segre and Wiegand, antiproton
1956: Reines and Cowan, neutrino detection
1956: Cork, Lambertson, Piccioni, Wenzel, evidence for antineutron
1956: Block, Lee and Yang, weak interaction could violate parity
1956: Reines and Cowan, antineutrino detection
1956: Erwin Muller, field ion microscope and first images of
individual atoms
1956: Cook, Lambertson, Piconi, Wentzel, antineutron
1968: Abdus Salam, 2component neutrino
1957: Burbidge, Burbidge, Hoyle, Fowler, formation of light elements
in stars
1957: Friedman, Lederman, Telegdi, Wu, parity violation in weak
decays
1957: Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer, BCS theory of superconductivity
1957: nobelium
1957: Hugh Everett, many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
1957: Feynman, GellMann, Marshak, Sudarshan, VA theory of weak
interactions
1957: John Wheeler, pregeometry and spacetime foam
1958: Townes and Schawlow, theory of laser
1958: Martin Ryle, evidence for evolution of distant cosmological
radio sources
1958: Seaborg et al, element 102, nobelium
1958: Gary Feinberg, predicts that muon neutrino is distinct from
electron neutrino
1958: David Finkelstein, resolves the nature of the black hole event
horizon
1959: MIT, radar echo from Venus
1959: Ramsey, Kleppner, Goldenberg, hydrogen maser atomic clock
1959: Tulio Regge, theory of Regge poles
1960: Theodore Maiman, ruby laser
1960: Martin Kruskal, new coordinates to study Schwarzschild black
hole
1960: Eugene Wigner, the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics
in natural science
1960: Pound and Rebka, measurement of gravitational redshift
1960: Matthews and Sandage, optical identification of a quasar
1961: Sheldon Glashow, introduces neutral intermediate boson of
electroweak interactions
1961: Jeoffrey Goldstone, theory of massless particles in
spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone boson)
1961: GellMann and Ne'eman, the eightfold way, octet symmetry
of hadrons
1961: Robert Dicke, weak anthropic principle
1961: Robert Hofstadter, necleons have an internal structure
1961: Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer, element 103, lawrencium
1961: Edward Ohm, prior detection of CMBR, but not identified
1961: Edward Lorenz, chaos theory
1961: Yuri Gagarin, first man in space
1961: Geoffrey Chew, nuclear democracy and the bootstrap model
1961: Tulio Regge, simplicial lattice general relativity
1962: GellMann and Ne'eman, prediction of Omega minus particle
1962: Leith and Upatnieks, first hologram
1962: Giacconi, Gursky, Paolini, Rossi, detection of cosmic Xrays
1962: Brian Josephson, theory of Jesephson effect
1962: Lederman, Steinberger, Schwartz, evidence for more than one
type of neutrino
1962: Hogarth, proposes relation between cosmological and
thermodynamic arrows of time
1962: Thomas Gold, timesymmetric universe
1962: Benoit Mandelbrot, fractal images
1963: Samios et al, Baryon Omega minus found
1963: Philip Anderson, gauge theories can evade Goldstone theorem
1963: Roy Kerr, solution for a rotating black hole
1963: Schmidt, Greensite, Sandage, quasars are distant
1963: Nicola Cabibbo, weak mixing angle
1964: Brout, Englert, Higgs, Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking
1964: Hoyle, Taylor, Zeldovich, big bang nucleosynthesis of helium
1964: Steven Weinberg, baryon number is probably not conserved
1964: Christenson, Cronin, Fitch, Turlay, CP violation in weak
interactions
1964: GellMann, Zweig, quark theory of hadrons
1964: Murray GellMann, current algebra
1964: Bjorken and Glashow, prediciton of quark flavour symmetry and
charm
1964: Roger Penrose, black holes must contain singularities
1964: Ginzburg, Doroshkevich, Novikov, Zel'dovich, black holes have
no hair
1964: Salpeter and Zel'dovich, black holes power quasars and radio
galaxies
1964: John Bell, a quantum inequality which limits the possibilities
for local hidden variable theories
1964: John Wheeler, foundations of canonical formulism for gravity
1964: Soviets, element 104, rutherfordium
1964: Salam, Ward, electroweak unification
1965: Thomas Kibble, Higgs mechanism for YangMills theory
1965: Greenberg, Han, Nambu, quark colour symmetry to explain
statistics of quark model
1965: Zabusky and Kruskal, numerical studies of solitons
1965: Penzias and Wilson, detection of the cosmic background
radiation
1965: Dicke, Peebles, Roll, Wilkinson, identification of cosmic
background radiation
1965: Rees and Sciama, quasars were more numerable in the past
1966: Xray source Cygnus X1 discovered
1967: Raymonf Davis, neutrino detector
1967: Jocelyn Bell, Thomas Gold, pulsars
1967: Steven Weinberg, electroweak unification
1967: Irwin Shapiro, radar measurement of relativistic time delays to
Mercury
1967: John Wheeler, introduced the term "black hole"
1967: Andrei Sakharov, three criteria for cosmological abundance of
matter over antimatter
1967: soviets, element 105, dubnium
1968: Joseph Weber, first attempt at a gravitational wave detector
1968: Brandon Carter, strong anthropic principle
1968: Gabriele Veneziano, dual resonance model for strong
interaction, beginning of string theory
1968: James Bjorken, theory of scaling behavior in deep inelastic
scattering
1968: Richard Feynman, scaling and parton model of nucleons
1969: Kendall, Friedman, Taylor, deep inelastic scattering
experiments find structure inside protons.
1969: Ellis, Hawking and Penrose, singularity theorems for the big
bang
1969: Roger Penrose, conjectures that singularities are hidden by
cosmic censorship
1969: Donald LyndenBell, black hole at the centre of galactic
nuclei
1969: Raymond Davis, solar neutrino detector
1969: Charles Misner, cosmological horizon problem revisited
1969: Robert Dicke, cosmological flatness problem
1969: Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon
1969: first attempts to verify solar deflection of radio waves from
quasars
1969: David Finkelstein, spacetime code
1970: Claude Lovelace, Veneziano amplitude has special properties in
26 dimensions
1970: Nambu, Nielsen, Susskind, realization that the dual resonance
model is string theory
1970: Goto, Hara, Nambu, action for bosonic string as area of world
sheet
1970: Simon Van der Meer, stochastic cooling for particle beams
1970: Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani, GIM mechanism and prediction of
charm quark
1970: Stephen Hawking, the surface area of a black hole event
horizon always increases
1971: Kenneth Wilson, the operator product expansion and the
renormalization group for the strong force
1971: Dimopolous, Fayet, Gol'fand, Lichtman Supersymmetry
1971: Ramond, Neveu, Schwarz, string theory of bosons and fermions
with critical dimension 10
1971: 't Hooft, Veltman, Lee, renormalization of elctroweak model
1971: Roger Penrose, spin networks
1971: Bolton, Murdin, Webster Cygnus X1 identified as black hole
candidate
1972: Jacob Bekenstein, black hole entropy
1972: Fritsch, GellMann, Bardeen, quantum chromodynamics
1972: Kirzhnits, Linde, electroweak phase transition
1972: Roger Penrose, twistors
1972: Salam, Pati, unification and proton decay
1973: Wess and Zumino, spacetime supersymmetry
1973: Ostriker and Peebles, dark matter in galaxies
1973: CERN, Evidence of weak neutral currents
1973: 't Hooft, Gross, Politzer, Wilczek, Coleman, theory of
asymptotic freedom in nonabelian gauge theories
1973: Klebesadel, Strong, Olson, gamma ray bursts are cosmic
1973: Edward Tyron, the universe as a quantum fluctuation
1974: Yoneya, Scherk, Schwarz interpretation of string theory as a
theory of gravity
1974: Ting and Richter, found J/psi, charmed quark
1974: Kenneth Wilson, lattice gauge theory
1974: Taylor and Hulse, binary pulsar and relativistic effects
1974: Kobayashi and Maskawa, CKM mixing matrix; CP violation in weak
interaction requires three generations
1974: Georgi and Glashow, Grand Unified Theory and
prediction of proton decay
1974: Georgi, Weinberg, Quinn, convergence of coupling constants at
GUT scale
1974: 't Hooft, Okun, Polyakov, heavy magnetic monopoles exist in
GUTs.
1974: Stephen Hawking, black hole
radiation and thermodynamics
1974: Soviets and Americans, element 106, seaborgium
1975: Martin Perl, tau lepton
1975: Gail Hanson, quark jets
1975: Chincarini and Rood, lumpiness in galaxy distributions
1975: Unruh and Davies, acceleration radiation effect
1975: Mitchell Feigenbaum, universality in chaotic nonlinear
systems
1975: Belavin, Polyakov, Schwartz, Tyupkin, instantons in YangMills
theory
1976: Scherk, Gliozzi, Olive, supersymmetric string theory
1976: Deser, Freedman, Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ferrara, Zumino, supergravity
1976: Levine and Vessot, precision test of gravitational time
dilation on rocket
1976: Gerard 't Hooft, the instantons solution of the U(1) anomaly
1976: Soviets element 107, bohrium
1977: James Elliot, rings of Uranus
1977: Olive and Montenen, conjecture of elecromagnetic duality
1977: Fermilab, bottom quark
1977: Klaus von Klitzing, quantum Hall effect
1977: Tifft, Gregory, Joeveer, Einasto, Thompson, clusters chains
and voids in galaxy distributions
1977: Berkley, dipole anisotropy on cosmic background radiation
1977: Leon Lederman, upsilon, bottom quark
1977: Gunn, Schramm, Steigman, cosmological constraints imply that
there are only three light neutrinos
1978: Charon, moon of Pluto
1978: Taylor and Hulse, evidence for gravitational radiation of
binary pulsar
1978: Cremmer, Julia, Nahm, Scherk, 11dimensional supergravity
1978: Prescott, Taylor, elctroweak effect on electron polarization
1979: Voyager, rings of Jupiter
1979: John Preskill, cosmological monopole problem
1979: Walsh, Carswell, Weymann, quasar doubled by gravitational
lensing
1979: DESY, evidence for gluons in hadron jets
1979: Alexei Starobinsky, inflationary universe
1980: Frederick Reines, evidence of neutrino oscillations
1980: DESY, measurement of gluon spin
1980: Alan Guth, inflationary early universe
1981: Witten, Schoen, Yau, positive energy theorem in general
relativity
1981: Green and Schwarz, Type I superstring theory
1981: Binnig, Rohrer, scanning tunneling electron microscope
1981: Witten and AlvarezGaume, difficulty of getting standard model
from 11D supergravity because of chiral modes
1981: Alexander Polyakov Path, integral quantization of strings,
conformal symmetry and critical dimension
1981: Linde, Albrecht, Steinhardt, new inflationary universe
1982: Green and Schwarz, Type II superstring theory
1982: Alain Aspect, an experiment to confirm nonlocal aspects of
quantum theory
1982: Darnstadt, element 109, meitnerium
1982: limits on proton lifetime rule out many Grand Unified Theories
1983: Carlo Rubbia et al, W and Z bosons at CERN
1983: Andrei Linde, chaotic inflationary universe
1984: Plate tectonics proved by measurement; 3.6 cm per year between
Europe and North America
1984: Green and Schwarz, anomaly cancellations in superstring theory
1984: Darnstadt element 108, hassium
1985: Gross, Harvey, Martinec, Rohm, heterotic string theory
1985: David Deutsch, theory of quantum computing
1986: Bednorz and Mueller, high temperature superconductivity
1986: Abhay Ashtekar, new variables for canonical quantum gravity
1986: Geller, Huchra, Lapparent, bubble structure of galaxy
distributions
1987: supernova 1987a visible, neutrinos detected
1987: Masatoshi Koshibas, detection of neutrinos from a supernova
1988: Atiyah, Witten, topological quantum field theories
1988: Smolin and Rovelli, loop representation of quantum gravity
1989: SLAC, evidence that number of light neutrinos is 3 from Z
width
1989: Tim BernersLee, The World Wide Web
1989: Bennett and Brassard, first quantum computer
1990: John Mather, black body spectrum of cosmic background
radiation from COBE
1991: CERN, confirmation that number of light neutrinos is 3
1991: Connes, Lott, particle models from noncommutative geometry
1991: BATSE, gamma ray burst distribution is isotropic
1991: Wolzczan, Frail, exoplanets discovered
1992: Kuiper Belt objects discovered
1992: Mather and Smoot, angular fluctuations in cosmic background
radiation with COBE
1993: Aspinwall, Morrison, Greene, topology change in string theory
1994: Philip Gibbs, eventsymmetric spacetime
1994: Fermilab, top quark
1994: 't Hooft, Susskind Holographic principle
1994: Seiberg and Witten, electromagnetic duality in supersymmetric
gauge theory
1994: Hubble Space Telescope, evidence for black hole at the centre
of galaxy M87
1994: Peter Shor, factorization algorithm for a quantum computer
1994: Hull, Townsend, unity of string dualities
1994: Darnstadt, element 110
1995: Witten and Townsend, MTheory
1995: Joseph Polchinski, DBranes
1995: Cornell, Wieman, Anderson BoseEinstein condensate of atomic
gas
1995: CERN, Creation of Antihydrogen atoms
1995: Mayor and Queloz, first extrasolar planet orbiting an
ordinary star
1995: Darnstadt, element 111
1996: Strominger, Vafa, Dbranes and blackholes
1996: Cumrun Vafa, Ftheory
1996: Steven Lamoreaux, measurement of Casimir force
1996: Darnstadt, element 112
1996: Banks, Fischler, Shenker, Susskind, Mtheory as a matrix model
1997: BepoSAX, location of gamma ray bursts demonstrates that they
are extragalactic
1997: Juan Maldacena, AdS/CFT duality
1997: SLAC, photonphoton scattering produces electronpositron
pairs
1998: Perlmutter, Garnavich et al, supernovae observations suggest
that the expansion of the universe is accelerating
1998: SuperKamiokande, neutrino oscillation demonstrated
1998: CERN, Fermilab, time reversal assymetry observed for K meson
decay
2000: Fermilab, tau neutrino observed
2012: CERN demonstrates existence of Higgs bososn

