Porosity from the Sonic Log
"Slowness" is the new word for sonic or acoustic travel time. The inverse of slowness is speediness or velocity. We continue to use travel time in this Handbook - it's hard to teach old dogs new tricks.

The basic relationship for the sonic log starts with the elastic constants of rocks:
       Vp = KS4 * (Kc / DENS) ^ 0.5
       Vs = KS4 * (N / DENS) ^ 0.5

Where:
  Kc = composite bulk modulus of the rock
  N = composite shear modulus of the rock
  DENS = density of the rock
  Vp = compressional velocity of the rock
  Vs = shear velocity of the rock
  KS4 =  units conversion term

Since density and the moduli vary with the rock mineral type, shale volume, porosity, and the type of fluids in the pores, so does velocity. Travel time is the inverse of velocity, so it varies with these components as well. M. R. J. Wyllie plotted core porosity against travel time and found a linear relationship that varied in slope depending on mineralogy. Later a shale term was added. At low to medium porosity, a plot of velocity versus core porosity also appears to be linear, but the square root term in each of the above equations suggests that either arrangement  should be a curve. Wyllie's linear approximation is sufficient for many situations and is very widely used.

The response equation for the sonic log follows the classical form:
       1: DTC = PHIe * Sxo * DTCw                                (water term)
                    + PHIe * (1 - Sxo) * DTCh                        (hydrocarbon term)
                    + Vsh * DTCsh                                        (shale term)
                    + (1 - Vsh - PHIe) * Sum (Vi * DTCi)         (matrix term)

WHERE
  DTCh = log reading in 100% hydrocarbon
  DTCi = log reading in 100% of the ith component of matrix rock
  DTC = log reading
  DTCsh = log reading in 100% shale
  DTCw = log reading in 100% water
  PHIe = effective porosity (fractional)
  Sxo = water saturation in invaded zone (fractional)
  Vi = volume of ith component of matrix rock
  Vsh = volume of shale (fractional)

To solve for porosity from the sonic log, we assume DTCh, DTCi, DTCsh, DTCw, and Vsh are known. We also assume DTCw = DTCh and Sxo = 1.0 when no gas is present. If gas is indicated, we make assumptions about DELTh and Sxo, usually in the form of a correction factor to the gas free case. The usual result is:

The response equation is not rigorous and many exceptions are noted below. Mineral and fluid parameters are shown HERE. Shale properties are selected from the log in an obvious shale zone.
 


Porosity From the Sonic Log (Wyllie Method)
Calculate sonic compaction correction
      2: KCP = max (1, DTCSH / KS9)

WHERE:  KS9 = 100 for English units, 328 for Metric units

Calculate total sonic porosity
      3: PHIS = (DTC - DTCMA) / (DTCW - DTCMA) / KCP

Correct sonic porosity for shale
       4: PHISSH = (DTCSH - DTCMA) / (DTCW - DCTMA) / KCP
       5: PHIsc = PHIS - Vsh * PHISSH

Correct sonic porosity for gas effect
       6: IF SONICGASSWITCH$ = "ON"
       7: THEN PHIsc = KS * PHIS

WHERE:
  KCP = compaction factor (fractional)
  DTC = sonic log reading in zone of interest (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTCMA = sonic log reading in l00% matrix rock (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTCSH = sonic log reading in l00% shale (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTCW = sonic log reading in 100% water (usec/ft or usec/m)
  KS = sonic log gas correction factor
  PHIS = porosity from sonic log (corrected for compaction if needed) (fractional)
  PHIsc = porosity from sonic log by Wyllie method (fractional)
  PHISSH = apparent sonic porosity of 100% shale after compaction correction (if needed) (fractional)
  Vsh = shale volume (fractional)

COMMENTS:
Of the three "one-log" porosity methods, the sonic corrected for shale is the preferred one for wells drilled after 1957 and before 1965. However, crossplot methods or the density log corrected for shale are usually better if the log data is available.

The graphical solution for these formulae is provided below. Simpler charts exist which do not include the shale or fluid correction. If any significant amount of shale exists, do not use simple charts.


Chart for Estimating Shale Corrected Sonic Porosity

Use the compaction correction only if CDTSH > 100 (for English units) or CDTSH > 328 (for Metric units). In western North America, this is normally required when above 3,000 - 4,000 feet (900 - l,200m).

KS is in the range 0.7 to 1.0 depending on gas density invasion and local experience. It can be derived by comparing the calculated porosity with the true porosity from cores or density neutron crossplot methods.

Use gas correction only if PHIS is too high compared to other sources, only if the zone is clean and does not need shale corrections, and if gas is known to be present. The need for this correction is rare. It is very unlikely that a gas correction will be needed in shaly sands since invasion should be relatively deep.

Another way of making gas corrections is to change DELTW to a higher value, representing the travel time of sound in a mixture of gas and water. This value depends on water saturation in the invaded zone, pressure, temperature and gas compressibility. Values in the range of 600 usec/ft (1900 usec/m) at shallow depths to 300 usec/ft (950 usec/m) at 6000 feet (2000 meters) are recommended as a starting point.

KCP can be calculated if true porosity of a clean zone is known from core, neutron, or density log data:

       8: KCP = PHIS / PHItrue

WHERE:
  KCP = compaction factor (fractional) (usec/ft or usec/m)
  PHIS = sonic log porosity in clean sand (fractional)
  PHItrue = actual porosity in clean sand from core or density data (fractional)

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE:
1. Wyllie Method - Shaly Sand
    DTC = 300 usec/m
    DTCSH = 328 usec/m
    DTCMA = 182 usec/m
    DTCW = 616 usec/m
    Vsh = 0.33
    KCP = 1.0

Therefore compaction correction is not needed.

    PHIS = (300 - 182) / (616 - 182) / 1.0 = 0.27
    PHISSH = (328 - 182) / (616 - 182) / 1.0 = 0.34
    PHIsc = 0.27 - 0.33 * 0.34 = 0.16
    PHIsc is not too high, and no gas is known to be present. Hence, no gas correction is made.

2. Wyllie Method - Clean Gas Sand
    DTC = 380 usec/m
    DTCSH = 328 usec/m
    DTCMA = 182 usec/m
    DTCW = 616 usec/m

    Vsh = 0.0
    KCP = 1.0
    PHIS = (380 - 182) / (616 - 182) / 1.0 = 0.46
    PHISSH = (328 - 182) / (616 - 182) = 0.36
    PHIsc = 0.46 - 0.0 * 0.36 = 0.46
    PHIsc is too high due to gas effect - assume KS = 0.75
    PHIsc = 0.75 * 0.46 = 0.33

3. Wyllie Method - Un-compacted Sand
    DTC = 375 usec/m
    DTCSH = 460 usec/m
    DTCMA = 182 usec/m
    DTCW = 616 usec/m

    Vsh = 0.0
    KCP = 460 / 328 = 1.40
    PHIsc = PHIS = (375 - 182) / (616 - 182) / 1.40 = 0.31
No gas correction is required.
No shale correction is required.

Fluid Travel Time Values
The acoustic wave from a sonic log travels in the rock near the wellbore face. The pores contain mostly mud filtrate with some of the original formation fluids (formation water with or without oil or gas). We generally assume DTCW = 656 usec/m for fresh water mud filtrate and DTCW = 616 usec/m in saturated salt water mud filtrate (200 usec/ft and 188 usec/ft respectively, in English units. However the chart below show that DTCW could be as low as 168 usec/ft in a saturated CaCl mud system.

Some mud systema use KCl to reduce shale erosion. These are still relatively fresh water muds compared to saturated CaCl muds, so the DTCW will still be close to, but less than, the fresh water value. Mud sytems with seawater makeup have a salinity of 20,000 to 30,000 ppmso DTCW should about 10% less than the fresh water value. Saturated NaCl mud may be used while drilling through salt beds, so the lower limit of DTCW should be used as a starting point.

Barite weighted muds are usually an emulsion with fresh water and DTCW varies only slightly wih mud weight.

In oil base muds, invasion is seldom an issue so DTCW depends on the salinity of the formation water and the hydrocarbon density.

 

All of this means that you may need to tinker with DTCW, as well as matrix and shale terms, to help get a good calibration to core porosity.


DTCW usec/ft (vertical axis) versus mud weight for CaCl and barite weighted mud systems


 Porosity From the Sonic Log (Hunt-Raymer Method)
The Hunt-Raymer method is a newer formula which is a non-linear calibration of observed porosity versus log response data. It should be used in clean sands and carbonates only, or log data may be corrected for shale first. It can be used in un-compacted sands without the compaction correction described in the Wyllie method given above. The algorithm is derived from the following empirical relationship:

       11: VELOG = VELMA * ((1 - PHIe) ^ 2) + VELW * PHIe

This can be solved for porosity in the following way:

Calculate sonic log reading corrected for shale:
      12: DTC1 = DTC - Vsh * (DTCSH - DTCMA)

Calculate sonic porosity
     13: C = DTCMA / (2 * DTCW)
     14: PHIShr = 1 - C - (C ^ 2 - DTCMA / DTCW + DTCMA / DTCc) ^ 0.5

WHERE:
  C = intermediate term
  DTC = sonic log reading in zone of interest (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTC1 = sonic log reading corrected for shale (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTCMA = sonic log reading in l00% matrix rock (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTCSH = sonic log reading in l00% shale (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTCW = sonic log reading in 100% water (usec/ft or usec/m)
  PHIShr = porosity from sonic log by Hunt-Raymer method (fractional)
  VELOG = sonic velocity log reading (ft/sec or m/sec)
  VELMA = sonic velocity log reading in 100% matrix (ft/sec or m/sec)
  VELW = sonic velocity log reading in 100% water (ft/sec or m/sec)
  Vsh = shale volume (fractional)

COMMENTS:
A graphical solution for the Hunt-Raymer method, with no shale correction, is given in BELOW.


Sonic Log Porosity from Hunt-Raymer Method (curved lines) and Wyllie Method (straight lines)
 - Shale Corrections Are Required Before Using This Graph.

Although the original paper does not discuss shale corrections, they are essential. Gas corrections similar to those used in the Wyllie method can be used if needed. The answer porosity will be too high in gas if the corrections are not made. The method is not universally applicable and should be tested in each area before use.

Another way of making gas corrections is to change DELTW to a higher value, representing the travel time of sound in a mixture of gas and water. This value depends on water saturation in the invaded zone, pressure, temperature and gas compressibility. Values in the range of 600 usec/ft (1900 usec/m) at shallow depths to 300 usec/ft (950 usec/m) at 6000 feet (2000 meters) are recommended as a starting point.

 

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE:
1. Hunt-Raymer Method - Shaly Sand
    DTC = 300 usec/m
    DTCSH = 328 usec/m
    DTCMA = 182 usec/m
    DTCW = 616 usec/m
    Vsh = 0.33
    KCP = 1.0

    DTC1 = 300 - 0.33 * (328 - 182) = 251 usec/m
    C = 182 / (2 * 616) = 0.147
    PHIShr = 1 - 0.147 - (0.147 ^ 2 - 182 / 616 + 182 / 251) ^ 0.5 = 0.18

2. Hunt-Raymer Method - Clean Gas Sand
    DTC1 = 380 - 0.00 * (328 - 182) = 380 usec/m
    C = 182 / (2 * 616) = 0.147
    PHIShr = 1 - 0.147 - (0.147 ^ 2 - 182 / 616 + 182 / 380) ^ 0.5 = 0.40
Porosity is too high due to gas effect - assume KS = 0.80.
    PHIsc = 0.80 * 0.40 = 0.32

3. Hunt-Raymer Method - Un-compacted Sand
    DTC1 = 375 - 0.33 * (460 - 182) = 375 usec/m
    C = 182 / (2 * 616) = 0.147
    PHIShr = 1 - 0.147 - (0.147 ^ 2 - 182 / 616 + 182 / 375) ^ 0.5 = 0.39

This result is a little high compared to the more conventional method.


Porosity From the Dipole Shear Sonic Log (Wyllie Method)
The newer sonic logs record shear travel time as well as the compressional travel tine. The compressional data is processed as discussed above under the Wyllie and Raymer-Hunt methods. Shear travel time can be used in the Wyllie equation, using fictitious values for fluid travel time. There is very little fluid effect on shear data so there is no gas correction.

Calculate total sonic porosity
      15: PHIS_S = (DTS - DTSMA) / (DTSW - DTSMA)

Correct sonic porosity for shale
      16: PHISSH_S = (DTSSH - DTSMA) / (DTSW - DTSMA)
      17: PHIsc_S = PHIS_S - Vsh * PHISSH_S

WHERE:
  DTS = shear sonic log reading in zone of interest (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTSMA = shear sonic log reading in l00% matrix rock (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTSSH = shear sonic log reading in l00% shale (usec/ft or usec/m)
  DTSW = (fictitious) shear sonic log reading in 100% water (usec/ft or usec/m)
  PHIS_S = porosity from shear sonic log before shale correction (fractional)
  PHIsc_S = porosity from shear sonic log by Wyllie method (fractional)
  PHISSH_S = apparent shear sonic porosity of 100% shale (fractional)
  Vsh = shale volume (fractional)

COMMENTS:
Shear travel time is more sensitive to porosity than compressional data.

No gas correction is needed.

The measurement can usually be made through casing so this is a good choice for cased hole logging.

There is no record of a compaction correction being applied, but this may be needed. Comparison to core porosity or density neutron crossplot porosity will indicate when such a correction is needed.

 
Table 1:  KS8 DTS / DTC Multiplier

Coal

1.9 to 2.3

Shale

1.7 to 2.1

Limestone

1.8 to 1.9

Dolomite

1.7 to 1.8

Sandstone

1.6 to 1.7

Shear travel time for fluid is a fictional value (pseudo-travel time) equal to Vp/Vs ratio times compressional travel time. Vp/Vs ratio can be estimated by:
      18: KS8 = SUM (Vxxx * (DTS/DTCmultiplier))

Where:
  Vxxx = volume of each mineral present, normalized so that SUM(Vxxx) = 1.0

Where:
  (DTS/DTCmultiplier) = Vp/Vs ratio for a particular mineral (Table 1)


 

RECOMMENDED PARAMETERS - SHEAR TRAVEL TIME

 

English - usec/ft

Metric - usec/m

DTSSH

96 - 240

490 - 770

DTSW         fresh water

350 **

1280 **

salt water

340 **

1200 **

DTSMA

   

  Granite

80.0

262

  Quartz

88.8

291

  Limey sandstone

88.9

292

  Limestone

89.9

294

  Limey dolomite

82.3

270

  Dolomite

74.8

245

  Anhydrite

85.0

280

  Coal

152+

500+

** Set equal to Vp/Vs times compressional sonic value
 

 

 Porosity from Vp^2 / Vs^2  (Biot-Gassmann) Method
The Biot -- Gassmann equations can be rewritten to derive porosity from the Vp / Vs ratio (the ratio of compressional to shear velocity) using known values of matrix velocity (derived from standard travel time (slowness) data and the log readings from compressional and shear sonic logs. The equation set is as follows (Krief, 1987, updated by Michel Krief, via email, Aug 2015):

Convert travel time to velocity
      18: Vp = 10^6 / DTC
      19: Vs + 10^6 / DTS

Solve the following equation set for PHIt
      20: Beta = (1 - Phit)^(BetaExp / (1 - Phit))
      21: BetaS = (1 - Phit)^(BetaSExp / (1 - Phit))
      22: 1 / Mb = (Beta - PHIt) / Km + (PHIt / Kf
      23: DENS * Vp^2 = DENSMA * (VPMA^2) * (1 - Beta) + (Beta^2) * Mb
      24: DENS * Vs^2 = DENSMA * (VSMA^2) * (1 . BetaS)           *** note the use of BetaS ***

Where:
  BetaExp = 3.0 by default (grainstone), with a range up to 100 (mudstone)
  BetaSExp = 3.0 by default (grainstone), with a range up to 100 (mudstone)
  Beta = Biot's coefficient (ALPHA was used elsewhere in this Handbook for Biot's constant)
  BetaS = Gassmann's coefficient
  Mb = Biot's modulus
  DENS = density log reading
  DENSMA  = matrix rock density
  Vp = compressional velocity from travel time log
  VPMA = matrix rock compressional velocity
  Vs = shear velocity from travel time log
  VSMA = matrix rock shear velocity
  Km = bulk modulus of matrix rock
  Kf = bulk modulus of pore fluid

Beta (Biot coefficient) is for the calculation of bulk modulus, BetaS (Gassmann coefficient) for the calculation of the Shear modulus. Beta and BetaS are not necessarily equal. BetaExp and BetaSExp are coefficients which may be called Biot-Krief exponent and Gassmann-Krief exponent.

COMMENTS:
This set of four non-linear equations must be solved for PHIt in terms of Vs^2 and Vp^2. Probably the solver in Excel will do it, but I haven't tried it. By using volume weighted averages of shale and matrix rock properties for the matrix terms, you can replace PHIt with PHIe. Kf can be set to account for gas, oil, or water.

A graph showing the result for clean rocks is shown below.


Vp^2  versus Vs^2 for calculating porosity.. Gas point is very close to the graph origin, so
slope of lines steepens slightly. Porosity scale on the lines stretches a bit but matrix points do not move.


SONIC LOG PARAMETERS (COMPRESSIONAL TRAVEL TIME)


 


 

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