Crain's Usage Rules For Porosity MethodS
The answers for all the porosity solutions will vary, and in some cases be unreasonable or impossible to calculate due to lack of data. In order of preference, we would choose:

BEST MODELS -- Use whenever possible
1. Shale Corrected Density Neutron Complex Lithology Crossplot Model aka "Complex Lith".
Preferred because equations are simple, requires no assumptions, is unaffected by mineral mixtures, gas correction is easy. The Meta/Kwik spreadsheet for this model is available at
Downloads and Spreadsheets.

2. NMR Porosity Model
Negligible effect from minerals or shale. Limited use in very rough boreholes.

OTHER CROSSPLOT MODELS --- Use only within  limitations noted on eqch page.
3. Sonic Neutron Crossplot
Limitations: OK in carbonates or in bad hole where density is not acceptable, must be shale corrected in shaly sands.

4. Sonic Density Crossplot
Limitations: gas correction difficult, not as accurate as complex lith.

5. Density Neutron Shaly Sand Crossplot Models
Limitations: only for shaly quartz/feldspar sands, matrix offset model needed if other minerals present, complex lith model is easier.

6. Density Neutron Bulk Volume Water Crossplot Models
Limitations: only for shaly quartz/feldspar sands, matrix offset model needed if other minerals present, complex lith model is easier. Also needs dry clay properties.

SINGLE LOG MODELS -- Use only if no crossplot method is possible
7. Sonic Log Corrected for Shale
Limitations: VERY sensitive to mineral, gas, compaction, and shale parameter assumptions.

8. Neutron Log Corrected for Shale
Limitations: VERY sensitive to gas and shale parameter assumptions.

9. Density Log Corrected for Shale

Limitations: works in good borehole only, VERY sensitive to mineral and gas parameter assumptions.

10. Microresistivity, shallow or deep resistivity
Very sensitive to mud properties and invasion profike. Microlog sensitive to borehole breakout.
Use in ancient wells that have no porosity logs.

11. Maximun Porosity Model
Use as last resort in sand shale sequences. DO NOT use in carbonates.

12. Non-Porosity Triggers
Use if needed in anhydrite, coal, gypsum, salt, etc

NOTE: Apply Porosity Trimming constraints to selected method.


Computed Results for Mixed Lithology Example from six different porosity models, compared
to core analysis porosity.

All porosity calculations need to be calibrated to core data at some point, usually at an early stage in an analysis project. Log analysis in isolation from other data is pointless and dangerous.

Trimming POROSITY results
Material balance for porosity is needed to prevent too high a porosity in very shaly sections or in bad hole conditions. Negative values must also be trimmed off to prevent errors in further steps in the calculation sequence..
      1: IF PHIe < 0
      2: THEN PHIe = 0
      3: IF PHIe > PHIMAX * (1.00 - Vsh)
      4: THEN PHIe = PHIMAX * (1.00 - Vsh)

  PHIe = porosity from any method (fractional)
  Vsh = shale content from any method (fractional)
  PHIMAX = maximum expected porosity in clean rock (fractional)
Don't fail to use this routine. It makes computer output look pretty nice even with poor logs.

Normal values for PHIMAX:
Very high porosity sandstone (and tar sands) PHIMAX = 0.36 to 0.42
High to medium porosity PHIMAX = 0.25 to 0.36
Low or shaly medium porosity PHIMAX = 0.18 to 0.25
Very low porosity, PHIMAX = 0.10 to 0.18

Normally you will settle upon a method that suits you and the zone under consideration. You will not have time to compute results from all methods. Use the above list as a guide to reduce your effort and to gain a better chance for success on the first pass. Log analysis is seldom satisfactory on the first pass in new areas, so do not be bashful about trying several methods. Then keep a record of which methods worked best in which areas.



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