The 20 or so articles in this Chapter comprise a “Reader’s Digest” version of Crain's Petrophysical Handbook, specially designed for Newbies to the Science of Petrophysics in the petroleum and mining industries. Because many professional and technical people grow-up in diverse career paths, Newbies could be anyone: a CEO, CFO, geoscientist, engineer, geotech, student or instructor looking to understand what petrophysics can do for their company or career.

Petrophysics, literally the Physics of Rocks, is the foundation of geology, geophysics, and petroleum / mining engineering. We all rely on the Shared Earth Model, which is described by the integration of petrophysics with all these other disciplines. In fact, any resource exploration or development project that ignores petrophysics is destined to be inefficient, or worse, doomed to failure.

If you might be displaced by the energy transition, or are looking for a long-term career path, or a university specialty that could lead to an interesting and rewarding life, petrophysics in its broadest sense may suit you.

Let's start with the basics of oil and gas and later we'll do the same for the mining industry.


Petrophysics is mainly used in petroleum exploitation, but also in defining mining and ground water resources.

To understand petrophysics, you need to understand rocks and the fluids they contain, how the earth's surface and subsurface change shape, and how pressure, temperature, and chemical reactions change rocks and fluids over eons of time. That's a tall order.

Rocks are formed in several ways, but usually end up as moderately flat layers, at least initially (mountain building comes later). As successive layers are laid on top of each other, the Earth builds a sequence of rocks with varying physical properties. Some layers will have open spaces, called pores or porosity, that contain fluids (water, oil, or gas). A rock on Earth with porosity cannot be "empty" -- they must contain something, even if it is only air.

Microphotograph of a rock -- dark blue colour is the porosity where
 oil, gas, and water can be held inside the rock.

Think of a porous rock as similar to a huge sponge full of holes that can soak up fluids. Although we often talk about "oil pools", these are not tanks of oil underground -- they are porous rocks. The porosity, or quantity of open space relative to the total rock volume, can range from near zero to as much as 40%. Obviously, higher values of this physical property of a rock are good news.

Some rocks have very little porosity and do not hold much in the way of fluids. These are often called "tight" rocks. Both tight and porous rocks can contain animal and plant residue that are ultimately transformed into hydrocarbons such as coal, oil, or natural gas that we can extract and use to power vehicles and heat our homes. As the plant and animal residues mature into oil or gas, they may migrate through porosity or natural fractures in the rock until trapped by a non-porous rock structure. Sometimes a rock only sources itself or an adjacent porous rock, so little migration occurs.

An anticline, the simplest form of petroleum trap

Rocks that are capable of holding  hydrocarbons in economic quantities are called reservoir rocks. Rocks in which the plant and animal residue has not been fully converted to useful hydrocarbons are called source rocks. Some rocks are both source and reservoir; others are barren of hydrocarbons, and some others may act as the trapping mechanism that keeps hydrocarbons from migrating to the surface and escaping.

A trap is what keeps oil and gas in the rocks until we drill wells to extract the hydrocarbons. Coal, being a solid, doesn't need a trap to be kept in place.

Reservoirs that contain oil or gas also contain water. The quantity of water relative to the porosity is called the water saturation. In the illustrations, the brown colour is solid rock grains and the space around the grains is the porosity. The black colour is the hydrocarbon and the white is the water, which forms a thin film coating the surfaces of each rock grain. This is a water-wet reservoir (left). In an oil-wet reservoir, the black and white colours are reversed (right).

Finding and evaluating the economics of such reservoirs is the job of teams of geoscientists and engineers in petroleum and mining companies. A petrophysicist, or someone playing this role, will be part of that team.

Once a useful accumulation has been found, drilling, completion, and production engineers take over to put wells on stream. Oil production may initially flow to surface due to the pressure in the reservoir. Some oil pools do not have enough pressure to do this and need to be pumped. Depending on the reservoir drive mechanism, some wells that start flowing will later need to be pumped. Water may be produced with the oil. It is separated and disposed of by re-injection into a nearby unproductive reservoir layer. You can't just dump the water in the nearest swamp.


Aquifer Drive -- Before ... and After some production            Gas Cap Drive               Gas Expansion Drive

An aquifer drive mechanism usually maintains the reservoir pressure for some time but may drop off gradually. Recovery factors vary from 30 to 80% of the oil in place. The oil water contact rises as production depletes the oil. A gas cap drive pushes oil out as the gas expands. Recovery factor is similar to aquifer drive. There may or may not be some aquifer support. The gas oil contact drops as the oil is depleted. Gas expansion reservoirs do not have aquifer or gas cap support. Gas dissolved in the oil expels oil into the well bore because the pressure at the well bore is below the reservoir pressure. Recovery factor is awful - usually less than 10%, but this can be improved to maybe 20% by injecting water nearby to increase or maintain the reservoir pressure. Water floods, carbon dioxide injection, and re-injection of produced gas or water can be used in nearly any reservoir to improve recovery efficiency.

Gas wells do not need pumps, but if they also produce water, a special process called artificial lift is used to get the water out. That water is also disposed of legally.

The economics of a reservoir varies with improving technology. Bypassed reservoirs, discovered and ignored years ago, are now economic due to technical improvements in drilling practices and reservoir stimulation techniques. Horizontal wells and deep water drilling are now common. The use of heat or steam to assist production of heavy oil or bitumen, and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing to stimulate production in tighter reservoirs are relatively new techniques and relatively economic today. Obviously the specific price of oil or gas after delivery to the customer plays an important role in how much effort can be expended to recover oil and gas from underground.

The next section describes how the oil and gas industry will handle the energy transition. Things will change, but the oil and gas industry aren't going anywhere anytime soon. In 2023, the Indian government ordered 500 new jumbo jetliners with a lifespan of about 50 years.  Somebody somewhere has to supply the fuel.

Climate change is REAL and our use of oil and gas as a fuel needs to change now to reduce CO2 emissions. Government agencies have set aspirational goals to reduce emissions by some arbitrary amount by some equally arbitrary date. But there is no detailed roadmap to achieve the goals. How many electric furnaces are needed to replace oil and gas home heating? Ditto automobiles, delivery and transport trucks, tractors and harvesters, ocean liners, container ships, ferries. Ditto trains, planes??? Ditto oil, gas, and coal fired power plants. Plus the old infrastructure has to be maintained while the new is put into place.


The quantities and costs are colossal for a world approaching 8 billion people.

However, oil and gas will never disappear. Even if we electrify everything possible, it still needs lubrication, paint, and insulated wires. Solar panels are 50% plastic, so is your food packaging. Except for cotton and wool, all your clothes are made from petrochemicals. Most of your house is too: carpets, cupboards, counter tops, siding, roofing, flooring, glue-lam beams, window frames, doors, tubs and shower surrounds.... Don't forget computers, internet servers, for all those electric cars and trucks, and asphalt pavement to run them on.

There are no economic alternatives unless you like living in caves, so use of plastics and the oil and gas needed to make them have a long life expectancy. We do need to stop burning them as fuels- there are alternatives for that!!

So we just need to get smarter about extracting, refining, an using oil and gas. Are you up to the challenge?

petrophysiCS and the Mining industry
For this article, we are expanding the definition of petrophysics to include the exploration methods performed on or near the surface to locate potential ore bodies, using all the physical principles we remember from our oil field well logging experience. Another article covering borehole logging in the mining environment is located HERE.

But first, a little background to set the stage. A 2023 International Energy Agency (IEA), stated that “to reach net-zero emissions by 2050, we need to be producing SIX times the current global output of minerals just to build the turbines, transmission lines, batteries, and other items essential for low-carbon energy infrastructure. Instead, we are mining less than we did in 2019. A 2020 Pan-Canadian Geoscience Strategy report suggested that “a strategy was needed to develop next generation geoscience knowledge and tools to efficiently target higher-grade or deeper deposits, with the ultimate goal being a mine of the future that produces zero waste”.   

Zero waste may be a bit of a stretch. Regardless, new mines are urgently needed and we already have the tools, and the petrophysicists and other geoscientists to use them. There are a surprising number of tools and analysis techniques available. No single one is a “magic-bullet, although some combinations may come close.

The first Secret to Success is to choose the appropriate tools and integrate the results to gain the best possible understanding of the potential ore body. The second is to combine the talents of both mining and petroleum geoscientists to encourage collaborative and innovative solutions to the search for critical minerals.

The “Petro” in Petrophysics means “rock”, not “petroleum”! The right kind of rock is what mining engineers, management, and shareholders are looking for. It is time to integrate all our petrophysical / geoscience skills to find those deeper prospects we know must be out there. Our World depends on our success.

Many metals are found in the form of massive sulphide ore bodies on or below the surface of the Earth. A massive sulphide deposit is defined as an accumulation of sulphide minerals which are normally composed of at least 40% to 100% sulphide minerals, bounded on all sides by rock with little or no sulphide minerals. Many deposits have a substantial component of vein-like sulphide mineralization, called the stringer zone, mainly in the footwall strata.  A typical ore body is 1 to 5 million tonnes of rock. Massive sulphides can be hosted in volcanic or sedimentary rocks.

The main sulphide minerals are:
   iron pyrite FeS2 (fool's gold),
   pyrrhotite Fe(1-x)S (x=0 to 0.2),
   troilite (magnetic pyrite) (Zn,Fe)S,
   galena (PbS), and
   chalcopyrite (Cu,Fe)S2.

Many mines produce more than one base metal and often one or more precious metal, like silver and gold. Some more exotic minerals can be found in the tailings of older mines.

A sulphide ore body may be found with multiple layers or lenses, and are denser and more conductive than the surrounding rock. These properties lead to numerous surface and borehole geophysical techniques that can be used to locate, and to some degree, quantify sulphide deposits. Core assay data is the main measure of ore grade, and grade thickness maps are the usual method of visualization; 3-D display software is also common.

Many existing mines are shallow, and as these are depleted, deeper exploration is now required. Some older mines can be expanded to previously unknown deeper zones using modern exploration methods. The Kidd Creek mine in Timmins, Ontario is the largest massive sulphide deposit in the World, and also the deepest at 2900+ m. produces zinc, copper, and silver.

Gangue (pronounced “ɡćŋ” or “gang”) is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit. It is distinct from overburden (waste rock or soil) displaced during mining, without being processed, and from tailings, which is rock already stripped of valuable minerals by some form of ore processing technique.

The separation of valuable minerals from gangue minerals is known as mineral processing, mineral dressing, or ore dressing. It is a necessary, and often significant, aspect of mining. It can be a complicated process, depending on the nature of the minerals involved.


borehole logging IN the Mining ENVIRONMENT
For clarity, we will refer to logs run for the mining industry as “borehole logs” and those for the oil and gas industry as “oilfield logs” or “well logs”, even though the guiding physical principles are the same for both.

It is difficult to make direct comparisons between oilfield logging tools and borehole tools.  Many contractors developed their own tools and probes are often customized to suit a particular exploration challenge.  The result is less standardization.  Some contractors offer a complete range of services from data acquisition to mapping, while others specialize in smaller projects, by supplying tool rentals.  Happily, many of the borehole log names are well-known to the oilfield log analyst, as the measurement principles are the same.  Acoustic, gamma ray, spectral gamma ray, density, neutron and electrical logs are common to both industries. 

In general, borehole tools are smaller and have reduced temperature and pressure ratings (eg., 20 mPa and 80 degC) compared to oilfield tools (100 mPa and 150 degC). However, many standard oilfield tools are available in slim-hole versions and are quite suitable for mineral borehole logging. A typical slim-hole gamma ray tool is just 42.9 mm (1-13/16 in) in diameter and approximately a meter long, compared to a mineral service contractor’s GR tool at 38 mm diameter and length of 0.63 meters.

There is a striking difference in scale between borehole logging operations for mining, and that for petroleum.  Mining drill-rigs are typically portable (even heli-portable), and boreholes are drilled to recover core or, in the case of reverse circulation (RC) drilling, to recover samples. Boreholes can be blasted or drilled, with logging equipment typically consisting of 3 components:  a data acquisition system to collect data from the downhole probe, a winch to deploy the probe into the borehole, and the downhole probe itself, which might be standalone or stackable.

borehole logging and coring Programs
The primary logging measurements would be one or more of the following: electrical conductivity (or resistivity), magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation (total and spectral), acoustic velocity (or travel time), bulk density, and more recently, induced gamma ray spectroscopy to identify particular metallic elements in the host rock.

Specialty logs such as magnetic susceptibility, induced polarization, or high resolution temperature logs may be used as well.

Terraplus in Canada, offers auxiliary equipment such as video inspection systems, borehole geophones, and hydrophone arrays, plus ground penetrating radar antennas for single hole investigation and cross-hole tomography. In the USA, Century Geophysical, among others, provides a wide variety of tools for the mining industry. The service providers are usually local contractors or the mining company itself.

Geological Survey of Canada and the US Geological Survey have also developed their own logging tools, mostly used in mineral reconnaissance surveys.

The mining industry relies heavily on coring, core description, and lab work for its geotechnical and geomechanical logs. Very detailed lithology, stratigraphy, and structure are annotated on these logs, as well as detailed notes on grain size, texture, and rock fabric. This information is entered into 3-D modeling software. Rock strength, discontinuities, faults, and fractures are carefully mapped into the model. Borehole logs and core photos are added to complete the 3-D display.

The model is constantly updated throughout the feasibility, design, development, operational, and expansion phases of a mines long lifetime. The integrity of the mine and the safety of the workers depend on the accuracy of this model. No shortcuts allowed!

The coring and logging procedures described above are also used to study geomechanical properties for dams, tunnels, highways, foundations, and many other large construction projects.


"Last week, I couldn't spell Petrophysicist. Now I are one." That describes me in 1962 as I moved from Montreal to Red Deer, Alberta to run well logs for a company called Schlumberger. The word petrophysics had been coined 12 years earlier by a geologist named Gus Archie and it wasn't used much back in the day. Lately it has attained a certain cachet, denoting a professional level career path.

What is a "well log" you ask. It is a record of measurements of physical properties of rocks taken in a well bore, usually drilled for oil or gas, but possibly for ground water or minerals. Think of a ship's log. The first record of such a log dates back to 1846 when Lord Kelvin measured temperature versus depth in water wells in England, from which he deduced that the Earth was 7000 years old. The fact that he was wrong is not important. Log analysis is an imperfect science.

Illustration of a wireline logging job: logging truck with computer cabin, cable and winch (right), cable strung from winch into drilling rig derrick and lowered into bore hole, with logging tool at the end of the cable. Logs are recording while pulling the tool up the hole. Logs can also be run with special tools located at the bottom of the drilling string, or conventional tools can be conveyed on coiled tubing or drill pipe

The first logs for oil field investigation were run by the Schlumberger brothers, Marcel and Conrad,  in 1928 in Pechebron, France. Soon, the service migrated to North and South America, Russia, and other locations in Asia. At that time, the only measurement that could be made was of the electrical resistivity of the rocks. High resistivity meant porous rock with oil or gas, or porous rock with fresh water, or tight rock with very low porosity. Low resistivity meant porous rock with salty water or shale. Take your pick. Local knowledge helped.

One virtue of the well log was that the top and bottom of each rock layer could be defined quite accurately. When the log and depths were compared to the rock sample chips created by the drilling process, a reasonable geological interpretation might be possible, but was far from infallible. 

By 1932, the spontaneous potential (SP) measurement was added. The analysis rules expanded: low SP meant shale, or tight rock, or fresh water. High values meant salt water with or without oil or gas in a porous rock. The resistivity could then be used to decide on water versus hydrocarbons. Perfect. Except there were lots of shades of grey and the SP was not always capable of defining anything.

Logs from 1932 in Oil City-Titusville area, Pennsylvania, the location of Edwin Drake's "First Oil Well" (in the USA - 6 other countries had oil wells predating this one). His well was only 69 feet deep, so it penetrated just to the top of these logs, which found deeper and more prolific reservoirs. Each pair of curves represents the measured data versus depth for one well. The SP is the left hand curve of each pair; deflections to the left (shaded) show porous rock. The resistivity is the curve on the right of each pair. Deflections to the right (shaded) show high resistivity, and when combined with a good SP deflection, indicate oil zones. Some good quality rocks in this example do not have high resistivity and are most likely water bearing.


The gamma ray log appeared in 1936. The rules were easy: low value equaled porous reservoir or tight rocks. High values were shale. It said nothing about fluid content.

By 1942, Gus Archie had defined a couple of quantitative methods that turned analysis into a mathematical game, instead of just some simple rules of thumb. His major work established a relationship between resistivity, water saturation, and porosity. If we knew porosity from rock samples measured in the lab, and a few other parameters, we could calculate water saturation from the resistivity log values. This was really new news.

He even attempted to calculate porosity from the resistivity log. This worked in high quality (high porosity) reservoirs but had problems in low quality rocks or heavy oil with gamma ray and caliper curves (far left), shear and compressional sonic travel time curves (middle) and sonic waveform image log (right). Depths are shown in the narrow track next to the gamma ray curve.

This is an example of a modern sonic log

 Just after 1945, a method that investigated the response of rocks to neutron bombardment became available. The neutron log was the first porosity indicating well log. High values meant low porosity or high porosity with gas. Low values meant high porosity with oil or water, or shale. Add the gamma ray log, SP, and resistivity and again the world was perfect, except for all those shades of grey. Calibrating the response to porosity depended on a lot of well bore environmental parameters (hole size, mud weight, temperature) so it was not terribly accurate.

It wasn't until 1958 that the measurement of the velocity (or travel time) of sound through rocks in a well bore was achieved. It turned out that the travel time was a linear function of porosity and a few other factors.

Shortly after 1960, another porosity indicating log appeared that measured the apparent density of the rocks. Porosity was a linear function of density -- higher density meant lower porosity.


Both sonic travel time and density as measured by these logs could be transformed into moderately accurate porosity values, using the gamma ray to discount shale, and the resistivity to distinguish between salty water and oil. Fresh water was still a problem and gas zones could only be located if a neutron log was also run.

This was the state of petrophysics when I entered the scene in 1962. The rules were obvious, the math was easy. And running the logging tools into the well bore meant lots of travel. I loved the job. There were no computers on every desk, calculators were bigger and heavier than typewriters, so the quantitative work was done with pencil and paper or sliderule. Anybody know what a sliderule is?

Later, with sidetracks into seismic data processing, reservoir engineering, project management, and seismic data center management, I finally noticed that petrophysics was the underlying foundation of much of geology, geophysics, and reservoir engineering.

That realization led me to my consulting and teaching career. I got to see a lot of the world, wrote a dozen or more software packages, analyzed the log data from thousands of wells, and saw even more of the world,


This may be the only editorial cartoon ever published in a newspaper (Calgary Herald, circa 1974 - 75) concerning petrophysical analysis. That's me peering down a borehole on Melville Island NWT, estimating the gas reserves to be "four trillion cubic feet". The final value was closer to 17 trillion. I was the log analyst and logging supervisor on about 140 wells in the Canadian Arctic across a 10 year period. We didn't use our eyeballs to look into the wellbores directly, of course; we used well logs and calculations based on those measurements
to do what our eyes could not.


We now call the business "Integrated Petrophysics" because we use much more than well log data to get our answers. Lab data from core analysis, such as porosity, permeability and grain density, are critical input parameters used to calibrate our work. More exotic lab measurements have become more common as we move into unconventional reservoir types like shale gas and tight oil prospects.


The rest of the articles in this chapter will cover how we use modern logs and will provide all the geoscience background you'll need to understand petrophysics.


Check out the "This Chapter" menu at the right to see where we are headed.

The table below might not mean too much to someone who is not in the oil, gas, or mineral development  business, but it will give everyone an idea of the scope of work, wealth of data types, and the multiplicity of uses to which petrophysical data can be applied. Although oil and gas dominate the list, uses in aid of sedimentary minerals, potable and near-potable water, helium and other inert gases, blue and green hydrogen, CO2 storage, geothermal energy, and lithium extraction from brine have been in use in many areas of the world.

DATA USES -  General Outline
    Petrophysical Analysis
    Geophysical Applications
    Geological Applications
    Drilling Applications
    Engineering Applications
    Completion Applications
    Production Applications

DATA USES - Petrophysical Analysis
    Shale Content
    Water Saturation
    Movable Hydrocarbon
    Irreducible Water Saturation
    Water Cut / Relative Permeability
    Permeability / Productivity
    Fracture Intensity / Orientation
    Fluid Contacts - Original and Dated
    Productive Intervals
    Swept Zones
    Pore Volume / Hydrocarbon Pore Volume
    Flow Capacity
    "Net Pay"
    Where Are The Reserves?
    How Much Does This Well Contribute?

DATA USES - Geophysical Applications
    Velocity and Density
    Seismic Modelling
    Synthetic Seismograms
    Editing Logs for Seismic
       Bad Hole Condition
       Missing Log Data
    Modeling Hypothetical Rock Sequences
    Modeling Hypothetical Fluid Content
    Vertical Seismic Profiles
    Seismic While Drilling
    Calibrating Seismic Inversion
    Calibrating Seismic Attributes
    Amplitude versus Offset Models
    Is the Seismic Interpretation Realistic?

DATA USES - Geological Applications
    Reservoir Description
    Structure and Stratigraphy
    Dip and Direction
    Sedimentary Models
    Sequence Stratigraphy
    Bedding Type / Orientation
    Depositional Environment

    Tectonic Structures
    Sedimentary Structures
    Multi-well Analysis
    Cross Sections / Fence Diagrams
    3-D Visualization
    Correlation and Mapping

   What Are the Geologic Risks?

DATA USES - Drilling Applications
    Designing Vertical Wells
    Designing Deviated Wells
    Designing Horizontal Wells
    Drilling Prognosis
    Stress Regimes / Fractures
    Borehole Stability
    Bit Selection
    Cost Estimates

    Where Are The Drilling Risks?

DATA USES - Engineering Applications
    Calculating Reserves
    Calculating Productivity
    Calculating Cash Flow
    Reservoir Simulation / Modeling
    History Matching
    Production Prediction
    Production Optimization
    Economic Analysis

    Is The Well/Pool/Project Any Good? 

DATA USES - Completion Applications
    Perforating Interval
    Stress Regime / Orientation
    Hydraulic Fracture Design
    Acidizing / Other Treatments
    Sand Control
    Maximize Productivity
    Are There More Targets?

    Is production maximized?

DATA USES - Production Applications
    Through Casing Reservoir Description
    Fluid Identification
    Cement Evaluation
    Casing Inspection
    Flow and Production Analysis
    Gas Leak Detection

    How Do We Repair The Well?

DATA TYPES ­ General Outline
    Air / Satellite Images

    Well History
       Tops, Tests, Cores, Perfs, Logs, Status
    Logs - Many Variations
    Cores - Many Types of Analyses
    Data Gathering Considerations
    Data Digitizing
    Project Planning
    Quality Control

DATA TYPES - Engineering
    Fluid Properties
    Pressure Transient
    Wellhead / Bottomhole Pressures
    Production History
    Injection History
    Completion Diagram
    Facilities In Place / Needed
    Economics / Costs / Prices

DATA TYPES ­ While Drilling
    Sample Descriptions
    Drilling Records
    Mud Logs
    Core Descriptions
    Measurements While Drilling
    Logging While Drilling
    Seismic While Drilling

DATA TYPES ­ After Drilling
    Conventional Open Hole Logs
    Image Logs
    Thin Bed Tools and Processing
    Petrophysical Analysis Results
    Geological Correlations / Maps
    Seismic Analysis / VSP
    Test Results
    Core Analysis Results

DATA TYPES - Open Hole Logs
    Resistivity and Resistivity Imaging
    Acoustic and Full Wave Acoustic
    Natural and Spectral Gamma Ray
    Formation Density and Litho Density
    Neutron Porosity
    Dipmeter and Deviation Surveys
    Formation Imager and Televiewer
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    Induced Gamma Ray Spectroscopy
    Pulsed Neutron and Activation
    Pressure Profiles / Sample Taker
    Sidewall Cores

DATA TYPES ­ After Completion
    Cased Hole Logging
    Reservoir Description Logs
    Production Logs
    Casing / Cement Evaluation Logs
    Bottom Hole Pressure Survey
    Well Test Results
    Initial Production / AOF / IPR

DATA TYPES ­ Special Cases
    Horizontal / Deviated Wells
    Logging Through Drill Pipe
    Coiled Tubing Logging

DATA TYPES ­ Core Data
    Conventional Core Analysis
       Permeability, Porosity, Saturation
       Grain Density Lithology Description
    Special Core Analysis
       Electrical Properties
       Capillary Pressure
       Relative Permeability
       Thin Section Petrography
       Scanning Electron Micrographs
       X-Ray Diffraction
       Infra-red Mineralogy
    Core Imaging
       White Light
       Ultra Violet Light
       CT Scans

DATA TYPES ­ Fluid Properties
    Density, Viscosity
    Water Resistivity, Chemical Analysis
    Oil / Gas Analyses

DATA TYPES ­ Pressure Transient
    Pressure versus Time
    Buildup or Drawdown
    Horner / Ramey Plots
    PBU Modeling / Curve Fitting
    Static Wellhead Pressure
    Static Bottom Hole Pressure

DATA TYPES ­ Production Data
    Oil / Gas / Water Rates
    Changes With Time
    Completion History
    Well / Pool / Reservoir Summaries
    Deliverability Analysis Results



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